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On this page: Abas – Abascantus – Abderus – Abdias – Abdolonimus – Abellio – Abelox – Abercius – Abgarus – Abia – Abisares


revolted, whom he had subdued, they were put to flight by the simple act of showing them his shield. (Virg. A en. iii. 286'; Serv. ad loc.} It was from this Abas that the kings of Argos were called by the patronymic Abantiads. [abantiades.]

[L. S.]

ABAS fA&w). 1. A Greek sophist and rhetorician about whose life nothing is known. Suidas (s. v. "Agas: compare Eudocia, p. 51) ascribes to him IcrroptKa. dTro^vrf/xara and a work on rhetoric (rex^ priropiKri}. What Photius (Cod. 190. p. 150, b. ed. Bekker) quotes from him, belongs probably to the former work. (Compare Walz, Rhetor. Grace, vii. 1. p. 203.)

2. A writer of a work called Troica, from which Servius (ad Aen. ix. 264) has preserved a frag­ ment. [L. S.J

ABASCANTUS (AgdcKavros^ a physician of Lugdunum (Lyons), who probably lived in the second century after Christ. He is several times mentioned by Galen (De Compos. Medicam. secund. Locos, ix. 4. vol. xiii. p. 278), who has also preserved an antidote invented by him against the bite of serpents. (De Antid. ii. 12. vol. xiv. p. 177.) The name is to be met with in numerous Latin in­ scriptions in Grutor's collection, five of which refer to a freedman of Augustus, who is supposed by Kuhn (Additam. ad ElencJi. Medic. Vet. a J. A. Fabricio in u Bibl. Or." Ezliib.} to be the same person that is mentioned by Galen. This however is quite uncertain, as also whether UapaK^rtnos 'ASdffKavOos in Galen (De Compos. Medicam. sccnnd. Locos, vii. 3. vol. xiii. p. 71) refers to the subject of this article. [W. A. G.]

ABDOLONIMUS or ABDALO'NIMUS, a gardener, but of royal descent, was made king of Sidon by Alexander the Great. (Curt. iv. 1; Just, xi. 10.) He is called Ballonymus by Diodorus. (xvii. 46.)

ABDERUS fA§07/pos), a son of Hermes, or according to others of Thromius the Locrian. (Apol-lod. ii. 5. § 8; Strab. vii. p. 331.) He was a favourite of Heracles, and was torn to pieces by the mares of Diomedes, which Heracles had given him to pursue the Bistones. Heracles is said to have built the town of Abdera to honour him. Accord­ing to Hyginiis, (Fab. 30,) Abdertis was a servant of Diomedes, the king of the Thracian Bistones, and was killed by Heracles together with his master and his four men-devouring horses. (Com­pare Philostrat. Heroic. 3. § 1 ; 10. § 2.) [L. S.]

ABDIAS (A@3ias^ the pretended author of an Apocryphal book, entitled The History of ike Apo­ stolical contest. This work claims to have been written in Hebrew, to have been translated into Greek by Eutropius, and thence into Latin by Julius Afri- canus. It was however originally written in Latin, about a. i>. 910. It is printed in Fabricius, Codex Apocryphus Novi Test. p. 402. 8vo. Hamb. 1703. Abdias was called too the first Bishop of Babylon. [A.J. C.]

ABELLIO, is the name of a divinity found in inscriptions which were discovered at Comminges in France. (Gruter, Inscr. p. 37, 4 ; J. Scaliger, Lectioncs Ausonianaer i. 9.) Buttmann (Mythologus^ i. p. 167, &c.) considers Abellio to be the same name as Apollo, who in Crete and elsewhere was called 'ASeAtos, and by the Italians and some Do­rians Apello (Fest. s. v. Apellinem; Eustath. ad II. ii. 99), and that the deity is the same as the Gallic Apollo mentioned by Caesar (Bell. Gall. vi.


17), and also the same as Belis or Belenus men­tioned by Tertullian (Apologet. 23) and Herodian (viii. 3; comp. Capitol. Maoeimin. 22). As the root of the word he recognises the Spartan BeAa, i.e. the sun (Hesych. s. ?;.), which appears in the Syriac and Chaldaic Belus or Baal. [L. S.]

ABERCIUS, ST, ('Age'p/aos), the supposed successor of St. Paplas in the see of Hierapolis, nourished A. d. 150. There are ascribed to him, 1. An Epistle to tlie Emperor Marcus Aurelius, of which Baronius speaks as extant, but he does not produce it; and, 2. A Book of Discipline (/3i§Aos SiSacr/mAias) addressed to his Clergy ; this too is lost. See lllustr. Eccles. Orient. Script. Vitae, a P.Halloioc. Duac. 1636, [A. J. C.]

ABGARUS, A'CBARUS, or AU'GARUS ("ASyapos, "AtcSapo^ Avyapos}, a name common to many rulers of Edessa, the capital of the district of Osrhoene in Mesopotamia. It seems to have been a title and not a proper name. (Procop. Bell. Pers. ii. 12.) For the history of these kings see Bayer, " Historia Osrhoena et Edessena ex nummis illustrata," Petrop. 1734. Of these the most important are:

1. The ally of the Romans under Pompey, who treacherously drew Crassus into an unfavorable position before his defeat. He is called Augaras by Dion Cassius (xl. 20), Acbarus the phylarch of the Arabians in the Parthian history ascribed to Appian (p. 34. Schw.), and Ariamnes by Plu­tarch. (Crass. 21.)

2. The contemporary of Christ. See the follow­ing article.

3. The chief, who resisted Meherdates, whom Claudius wished to place on the Parthian throne : he is called a king of the Arabians by Tacitus (Ann. xii. 12.14), but was probably an Osrhoenian.

4. The contemporary of Trajan, who sent pre­sents to that emperor when he invaded the east, and subsequently waited upon him and became his ally. (Dion Cass. Ixviii. 18. 21.)

5. The contemporary of Caracalla, who acted cruelly towards his nation, and was deposed by Caracalla. (Dion Cass. Ixxvii. 12.)

ABGARUS, Toparch of Edessa, supposed by Eusebius to have been the author of a letter written to our Saviour, which he found in a church at Edessa and translated from the Syriac. The letter is believed to be spurious. It is given by Eusebius. (Hist. Eccl. i. 13.) [A.J. C.]

ABIA ('Agfa), the nurse of Hyllus, a son of Heracles. She built a temple of Heracles at Ira in Messenia, for which the Heraclid Cresphontea afterwards honoured her in various other ways, and also by changing the name of the town of Ira into Abia. (Pans. iv. 30. § L) [L. S.]

ABELOX, ABELUX or ABILYX (*AgfAu|), a noble Spaniard, originally a friend of Carthage, betrayed the Spanish hostages at Saguntum, who were in the power of the Carthaginians, to the Roman generals, the two Scipios, after deceiving Bostar, the Carthaginian commander. (Liv. xxii. 22 ; Polyb. iii. 98, &c.)

ABISARES or ABI'SSARES ('AStffdpqs), called Embisarus ('E/xgtVapos) by Diodortis (xvii. 90), an Indian king beyond the river Hydaspes, whose territory lay in the mountains, sent embas­sies to Alexander the Great both before and after the conquest of Poms, although inclined to espouse the side of the latter. Alexander not only allowed him to retain his kingdom, but increased it, and

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