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ALCIDAMAS.

to" his fortified domain at Bisanthe in the Thracian Chersonesus. He collected a band of mercenaries, and made war on the neighbouring Thracian tribes, by which means he considerably enriched himself, and afforded protection to the neighbour­ ing Greek cities. Before the fatal battle of Aegos- J)otami(B. c. 405), he gave an ineffectual warning to the Athenian generals. After the establishment of the tyranny of the Thirty (b. c. 404), he was condemned to banishment. Upon this he took refuge with Pharnabazus, and was about to pro­ ceed to the court of Artaxerxes, when one night his house was surrounded by a band of armed men, and set on fire. He rushed out sword in hand, but fell, pierced with arrows. (b. c. 404.) Ac­ cording to Diodorus and Ephorus (Diod. xiv. 11) the assassins were emissaries of Pharnabazus, who had been led to this step either by his own jealousy of Alcibiades, or by the instigation of the Spartans. It is more probable that they were either employed by the Spartans, or (according to one account in Plutarch) by the brothers of a lady whom Alci­ biades had seduced. His corpse was taken up and buried by his mistress Timandra. Athenaeus (•xiii. p. 574) mentions a monument erected to his memory at Melissa, the place of his death, and a statue of him erected thereon by the emperor Hadrian, who also instituted certain yearly sacri­ fices in his honour. He left a son by his wife Hipparete, named Alcibiades, who never distin­ guished himself. It was for him that Isocrates wrote the speech Tlepi rov Zevyovs. Two of Lysias's speeches (xiv. and xv.) are directed against him. The fortune which he left behind him turned out to be smaller than his patrimony. (Plut. Alcib. and Nidas; Thucyd. lib. v.—viii.; Xenophon, Hellen. lib- i. ii.; Andoc. in Alcib. and de Mystery Isocr. DeBigis; Nepos, Alcib.; Diod. xii. 78—84, xiii. 2—5, 37—41, 45, 46, 49—51, 64—73 ; Athen. i. p. 3, iv. p. 184, v. pp. 215, 216, ix. p. 407, xi. p. 506, xii. pp. 525, 534, 535, xiii. pp. 574, 575.) [C. P. M.]

ALCIBIADES ('AAfa&a^s), a Spartan exile, was restored to his country about b. c. 184, by the Achaeans, but was ungrateful enough to go as am­bassador from Sparta to Rome, in order to accuse Philopoemen and the Achaeans. (Polyb. xxiii. 45 11, 12, xxiv. 4; Liv. xxxix. 35.)

ALCIDAMAS ('AAjaSajoeas), a Greek rheto­rician, was a native of Elaea in Aeolis, in Asia Minor. (Quintil. iii. l.§ 10, with Spalding's note.) He was a pupil of Gorgias, and resided at Athens between the years b. c. 432 and 411. Here he gave instructions in eloquence, according to Eudo-cia (p. 100), as the successor of his master, and was the last of that sophistical school, with which the only object of eloquence was to please the hearers by the pomp and brilliancy of words. That the works of Alcidamas bore the strongest marks of this character of his school is stated by Aris­totle (JRhct. iii. 3. § 8), who censures his pompous diction and extravagant use of poetical epithets and phrases, and by Dionysius (De Isaeo, 19), who calls his style vulgar and inflated. He is said to have been an opponent of Isocrates (Tzetz. Ckil. xi. 672), but whether this statement refers to real personal enmity, or whether it is merely an infer­ence from the fact, that Alcidamas condemned the practice of writing orations for the purpose of deli­vering them, is uncertain.

The ancienta mention several works of Alcida-

ALCIMACHUS.

mas, such as an Eulogy on Death, in which ho enumerated the evils of human life, and of which Cicero seems to speak with great praise (Tusc. i. 48) ; a shew-speech, called Aoyos Mecro-rjviaicds (Aristot. Rhet. i. 13. § 5) ; a work on music (Sui-das, s. v. 'AA/c/Sa^uas) ; and some scientific works, viz. one on rhetoric (re^r? pt]TopiK^^ Plut. Demosth. 5), and another called Aoyos </>u<rtKos (Diog. Laert. viii. 56) ; but all of them are now lost. Tzetzes (Cldl. xi. 752) had still before him several orations of Alcidamas, but we now possess only two decla­mations which go under his name. 1. 'OSwro'eus, tj Kara HaAa^rySovs irpofioffias, in which Odysseus is made to accuse Palamedes of treachery to the cause of the Greeks during the siege of Troy. 2. irepl <ro(picrro}i/, in which the author sets forth the advantages of delivering extempore speeches over those which have previously been written out. These two orations, the second of which is the bet­ter one, both in form and thought, bear scarcely any traces of the faults which Aristotle and Dio­nysius censure in the works of Alcidamas ; their fault is rather being frigid and insipid. It has therefore been maintained by several critics, that these orations are not the works of Alcidamas; and with regard to the first of them, the suppo­sition is supported by strong probability ; the se­cond may have been written by Alcidamas with a view to counteract the influence of Isocrates. The first edition of them is that in the collection of Greek orators published by Aldus, Venice, 1513, fol. The best modern editions are those in Reiske's Oratores Graeci, vol. viii. p. 64, &c.; and in Bekker's Oratores Attici^ vol. vii. (Oxford.) [L.S.]

ALCIDAS ('AAKt'Sas), was appointed, b. c. 428, commander of the Peloponnesian fleet, which was'sent to Lesbos for the relief of Mytilene, then besieged by the Athenians. But Mytilene sur­rendered to the Athenians seven days before the Peloponnesian fleet arrived on the coast of Asia; and Alcidas, who, like most of the Spartan com­manders, had little enterprise, resolved to return home, although he was recommended either to at­tempt the recovery of Mytilene or to make a de­scent upon the Ionian coast. While sailing along the coast, he captured many vessels, and put to deatk all the Athenian allies whom he took. From Ephesus he sailed home with the utmost speed, being chased by the Athenian fleet, under Paches, as far as Patmos. (Thuc. iii. 16, 26—33.) After receiving reinforce­ments, Alcidas sailed to Corcyra, b. c. 427 ; and when the Athenians an<7 Corcyraeans sailed out to meet him, he defeated them and drove them back to the island. With his habitual caution, how­ever, he would not follow up the advantage he had gained; and being informed that a large Athenian, fleet was approaching, he sailed back to Pelopon­nesus, (iii. 69—81.) In B. c. 426, he was one of the leaders of the colony founded by the Lace­daemonians at Heracleia, near Thermopylae, (iii. 92.)

ALCIDICE ('AA/a&'/o/-), the daughter of Aleus, and wife of Salmoneus, by whom she had a daugh­ ter, Tyro. Alcidice died early, and Salmoneus afterwards married Sidero. (Diod. iv. 68 ; Apol- lod. i. 9. § 8.) [L. S.]

ALCIMACHUS, a painter mentioned by Pliny. (H. N. xxxv. 11. s. 40.) He ia not spoken of by any other writer, and all that is known about him is, that he painted a picture of Dioxippus, a victor in the pancratium at Olympia.

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