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called Alexander Ephesius, and must have lived shortly before the time of Strabo (xiv. p. 642), who mentions him among the more recent Ephesian authors, and also states, that he took a part in the political affairs of his native city. Strabo ascribes to him a history, and poems of a didactic kind, viz. one on astronomy and another on geography, in which he describes the great continents of the world, treating of each in a separate work or book, which, as we learn from other sources, bore the name of the continent of which it contained an account. What kind of history it was that Strabo alludes to, is uncertain. The so-called Aurelius Victor (de Orig. Gent. Rom. 9) quotes, it is true, the first book of a history of the Marsic war by Alexander the Ephesian ; but this authority is more than doubtful. Some writers have supposed that this Alexander is the author of the history of the succession of Greek philosophers (at rav <j>i\o- (rotyow SiaSo%at), which is so often referred to by Diogenes Laertius (i. 116, ii. 19, 106, iii. 4, 5, iv. 62, vii. 179, viii. 24, ix. 61); but this work belonged probably to Alexander Polyhistor. His geographical poem, of which several fragments are still extant, is frequently referred to by Stephanus Byzantius and others. (Steph. Byz. s. vv. AaTnjflos, TaTrpo^a^, AcSpos, 'Tp/cai/oJ, MeArrctfa, &c.; comp. Eustath. ad Dionys. Perieg. 388, 591.) Of his astronomical pcfem a fragment is still extant, which has been erroneously attributed by Gale (Addend, ad Parthen. p. 49) and Schneider (ad Vitruv. ii. p. 23, &c.) to Alexander Aetolus. (See Naeke, Schedae Criticae, p. 7, £c.) It is highly probable that Cicero (ad Att. ii. 20, 22) is speaking of Alexander L3Tchnus when he says, that Alexander is not a good poet, a careless writer, but yet pos sesses some information. [L. S.]
ALEXANDER LYCOPOLITES ('AA^at/Spos AtwoTToAtTTjs), was so called from Lycopolis, in Egypt, whether as born there, or because he was bishop there, is uncertain. At first a pagan, he was next instructed in Manicheeism by persons acquainted with Manes himself. Converted to the faith, he wrote a confutation of the heresy (Trac- tatus de Pladtis Manichaeorum) in Greek, which was first published by Combefis, with a Latin version, in the Auctarium Novissimwn Bibl. ss. Pair. Ps. ii. pag. 3, &c. It is published also by Gallandi, Bill. Pair. vol. iv. p. 73. Pie was bishop of Lycopolis, (Phot. Epitome de Manicli. ap. Montfaucon. Bibl. Coislin. p. 354,) and probably immediately preceded Meletius. (Le Quien, Oriens Jfnus. vol. ii. p. 597.) [A. J. C.]
ALEXANDER ('AA^cwSpos), the son of lysi-machus by an Odrysian woman, whom Polyaenus (vi. 12) calls Macris. On the murder of his brother Agathocles [see p. 65, a] by command of his father in B. c. 284, he fled into Asia with the widow of his brother, and solicited aid of Seleucus. A war ensued in consequence between Seleucus and Lysimachus, which terminated in the defeat and death of the latter, who was slain in battle in B. c. 281, in the plain of Coros in Phrygia. His body was conveyed by his son Alexander to the Chersonesus, and there buried between Cardia and Pactya, where his tomb was remaining in the time of Pausanias. (i. 10. § 4, 5 ; Appian, Syr. 64.)
to Darius, Amyntas was still reigning. At a banquet given to the Persian envoys, the latter demanded the presence of the ladies of the court, and Amyntas, through fear of his guests, ordered them to attend. But when the Persians proceeded to offer indignities to them, Alexander caused them to retire, under pretence of arraying them more beautifully, and introduced in their stead some Macedonian youths, dressed in female attire, who slew the Persians. As the Persians did not return, Megabazus sent Bubares with some troops into Macedonia ; but Alexander escaped the danger by giving his sister Gygaea in marriage to the Persian general. According to Justin, Alexander succeeded his father in the kingdom soon after these events. (Herod, v. 17—21, viii. 136; Justin, vii. 2—4.) In b. c. 492, Macedonia was obliged to submit to the Persian general Mardonius (Herod, vi. 44) ; and in Xerxes' invasion of Greece (b. c. 4-80), Alexander accompanied the Persian army. He gained the confidence of Mardonius, and was sent by him to Athens after the battle of Salamis, to propose peace to the Athenians, which he strongly recommended, under the conviction that it was impossible to contend with the Persians. He was unsuccessful in his mission ; but though he continued in the Persian army, he was alwa}rs secretly inclined to the cause of the Greeks, and informed them the night before the battle of Plataeae of the intention of Mardonius to fight on the following day. (viii. 136, 140— 143, ix. 44, 45.) He was alive in b. c. 463, when Cimon recovered Thasos. (Pint. Cim. 14.) He was succeeded by Perdiccas II.
Alexander was the first member of the royal family of Macedonia, who presented himself as a competitor at the Olympic games, and was admitted to them after proving his Greek descent (Herod, v. 22; Justin, vii. 2.) In his reign Macedonia received a considerable accession of territory. (Thuc. ii. 99.)
ALEXANDER II. ('AAc-^pos), the sixteenth king of macedonia, the eldest son of Amyntas II., succeeded his father in b. c. 369, and appears to have reigned nearly two years, though Diodorus assigns only one to his reign. While engaged in Thessaly in a war with Alexander of Pherae, a usurper rose up in Macedonia of the name of Ptolemy Alorites, whom Diodorus, apparently without good authority, calls a brother of the king. Pelopidas, being called in to mediate between them, left Alexander in possession of the kingdom, but took with him to Thebes several hostages; among whom, according to some accounts, was Philip, the youngest brother of Alexander, afterwards king of Macedonia, and father of Alexander the Great. But he had scarcely left Macedonia, before Alexander was murdered by Ptolemy Alorites, or according to Justin (vii. 5), through the intrigues of his mother, Eurydice.