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foundation of great stones. It was erected by the tradespeople, mechanics, and courtezans, and on the top of it there were five pillars, which Herodotus saw, and on which were mentioned the different portions raised by each ; from this it appeared that the courtezans did the greater part. It measured six plethra and two stadia in circumference, and thirteen plethra in breadth. According to some writers, it was called the "tomb of the courtezan," and was erected by a mistress of Gyges. (Clearch. ap. Athen. xiii. p. 573, a.) This mound still exists. Mr. Hamilton says (Researches in Asia Minor, vol. i. p. 145), that it took him about ten minutes to ride round its base, which would give it a circumference of nearly a mile; and he also
states, that towards the north it consists of the natural rock—a white, horizontally stratified earthy limestone, cut away so as to appear part of the structure. The upper portion, he adds, is sand and gravel, apparently brought from the bed of the Hermus. He found on the top the remains of a foundation nearly eighteen feet square, on the north of which was a huge circular stone ten feet in diameter, with a flat bottom and a raised edge
.or lip, evidently placed there as an ornament on the apex of the tumulus.
ALYPIUS caauttios), the author of a Greek musical treatise entitled eiaraywyn juovtn/of. There are no tolerably sure grounds for identifying him with any one of the various persons who bore the name in the times of the later emperors, and of whose history anything is known. According to the most plausible conjecture, he was that Alypius whom Eunapius, in his Life of lamblichus, celebrates for his acute intellect (o SiaXeKTiKcvTaTos 'AAi^TTtos) and diminutive stature, and who, being a friend of lamblichus, probably flourished under Julian and his immediate successors. This Alypius was a native of Alexandria, and died there at an advanced age, and therefore can hardly have been the person called by Ammianus Marcellinus Alypius Antiockensisy who was first prefect of Britain, and afterwards employed by Julian in his attempt to rebuild the Jewish temple. Julian addresses two epistles (29 and 30) to Alypius ('Joi/Atavos 'AAuTTtqo d$€\<p<p Kaicrapfov), in one of which he thanks him for a geographical treatise or chart; it would seem more likely that this was the Antiochian than that he was the Alexandrian Alypius as Meursius supposes, if indeed he was either one or the other. lamblichus wrote a life, not now extant, of the Alexandrian.
(Meursius, Not. ad Alyp. p. 186, &c. c.; Julian, Epist. xxix. xxx. and not. p. 297, ed. Heyler; Eunapius, Vit. lamblicli. and not. vol. ii. p. 63, ed. Wyttenbach ; Amm. Marcell. xxiii. 1. § 2; De la Borde, Essai sur la Musique, vol. iii. p. 133.)
The work of Alypius consists wholly, with the exception of a short introduction, of lists of the symbols used (both for voice and instrument) to denote all the sounds in the forty-five scales pro-
1 rluced by taking each of the fifteen modes in the three genera. (Diatonic, Chromatic, Enharmonic.) [t treats, therefore, in fact, of only one (the fifth, mmely) of the seven branches into which the sub-ect is, as usual, divided in the introduction; and nay possibly be merely a fragment of a larger vork. It would have been most valuable if any :onsiderable number of examples had been left us if the actual use of the system of notation de-cribed in it; unfortunately very few remain (see
Burney, Hist, of Music, vol. i. p. 83), and they seem to belong to an earlier stage of the science. How ever, the work serves to throw some light on the obscure history of the modes. (See Bockh, de Metr. Find. c. 8. p. 235, c. 9. 12.) The text, which seemed hopelessly corrupt to Meursius, its first editor, was restored, apparently with suc cess, by the labours of the learned and indefatiga ble Meibomius. (Antiquae Musicae Auctores Septem, ed. Marc. Meibomius, Amstel. 1652; Aristoxenus, Nicomachus, Alypius, ed. Joh. Meur sius, Lugd. Bat. 1616.) [W. F. D.]
ALYPIUS ('AAuTnos), priest of the great church at Constantinople, flourished A. d. 430. There is extant an epistle from him to St. Cyril (in Greek), exhorting him to a vigorous resistance against the heresy of Nestorius. (See Conciliorum Nova Collectio^ a Mansi, vol. v. p. 1463.) [A. J.C.]
ALYPUS (''AAuTros), a statuary, a native of Sicyon. He studied under Naucydes, the Argive. His age may be fixed from his having executed bronze statues of some Lacedaemonians who shared in the victory of Lysander at Aegospotami. (b c. 405.) Pausanias also mentions some statues of Olympic victors made bv him. (vi. 1. § 2, x. 9. § 4, vi. 1. § 2, 8. § 3.) [C. P. M.]
ALYZEUS ('AAt^evs), a son of Icarius and brother of Penelope and Leucaclius. After his father's death, he reigned in conjunction with his brother over Acarnania, and is said to have founded the town of Alyzeia there. (Strab. x. p. 4,52; Steph. Byz. s. v. 'AAufcia.) [L. S.]
AMADOCUS ('AjuoSo/cos) or ME'DOCUS (MbjiSoKos), a common name among the Thracians. It was also, according to Ptolemy, the name of a people and mountains in Thrace. Pausanias (i. 4. § 4) speaks of an Amadocus who came from the Hyperboreans.
1. King of the Odrysae in Thrace, was a friend of Alcibiades, and is mentioned at the time of the battle of Aegospotami, b. c. 405. (Diod. xiii. 105.) He and Seuthes were the most powerful princes in Thrace when Xenophon visited the country in b. c. 400. They were, however, frequently at variance, but were reconciled to one another by Thrasybulus, the Athenian commander, in b. c. 390, and induced by him to become the allies of Athens. (Xeii. Anab. vii. 2. § 32, 3. § 16, 7- § 3, &c., Hell. iv. 8. § 26; Diod. xiv. 94.) This Amadocus may perhaps be the same as the one mentioned by Aristotle, who, he says, was attacked by his general Seuthes, a Thracian. (Pol. v. 8, p. 182, ed. Gottling.)
2. A Ruler in Thrace, who inherited in conjunction with Berisades and Cersobleptes the dominions of Cotys, on the death of the latter in b. c. 358. Amadocus was probably a son of Cotys and a brother of the other two princes, though this is not stated by Demosthenes. (Dem. inAristocr. p. 623, &c.) [cersobleptes.] Amadocus seems to have had a son of the same name. (Isocr. Philipp. p. 83, d. compared with Harpo-crat. s. v. 'AyuaSo/cos.)
3. One of the princes of Thrace, who was defeated and taken prisoner by Philip, king of Macedonia, b. c. 184. (Liv xxxix. 35.)
AMAESIA SENTIA is mentioned by Valerius • Maximus (viii. 3. § 1) as an instance of a female who pleaded her own cause before the praetor. (About b. c. 77.) She was called Andro-gyne, from having a man"s spirit with a female form. Compare afrania and hortensia.