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as the author of all life in nature. (Comp. Pint, do Is. et Os. 9, 21.) The new Platonists perceived in Ammon their demiurgos, that is, the creator and preserver of the world. As this subject belongs more especially to the mythology of Egypt, we cannot here enter into a detailed discussion about the nature and character which the later Greeks assigned to him, or his connexion with Dionysus and Heracles. Respecting these points and the various opinions of modern critics, as well as the different representations of Ammon still extant, the reader may consult Jablonsky, Pantheon Aegypt.; Bohlen, Das alte Indien, mit besonderer Rucksicht avf Ef/vpten, ii. c. 2. § 9 ; J. C. Prichard, Egyptian JMi.jthology; J. F. Champoliion, Pantheon Egyptien, ou Collection des Personages de Vancienne Egypte, <Jfc., Paris, 1823.
The worship of Ammon was introduced into Greece at an early period, probably through the medium of the Greek colony in Gyrene, which must have formed a connexion with the great ora cle of Ammon in the Oasis soon after its establish ment. Ammon had a temple and a statue, the gift of Pindar, at Thebes (Pans. ix. 16. § 1), and another at Sparta, the inhabitants of which, as Pausanias (iii. 18. § 2) says, consulted the oracle of Ammon in Libya from early times more than the other Greeks. At Aphytis, Ammon was wor shipped, from the time of Lysander, as zealously as in Ammonium. Pindar the poet honoured the god with a hymn. At Megalopolis the god was repre sented with the head of a ram (Pans. viii. 32. § 1), and the Greeks of Cyrenaica dedicated at Delphi a chariot with a statue of Ammon. (x. 13. § 3.) The homage which Alexander paid to the god in the Oasis is well known. [L. S.]
AMMON ("A^yucoz/), a geometrician, who made a measurement of the walls of Rome, about the time of the first invasion of the Goths, and found them to be 21 miles in circuit. (Olympiodorus, ap. Phot. Cod. 80, p. 63, ed. Bekker.) [P. S.]
AMMON ^ApfjLtoir). }. Bishop of Hadrianople, A. D. 400, wrote (in Greek) On the Resurrection against Origenism (not extant). A fragment of Ammon, from this work possibly,'may be found ap. S. Cyril. Alex. Lib. de Recta Fide. (Vol. v. pt; 2, ad fin. p. 50, ed. Paris. 1638.) He was present at the Council of Constantinople a. d. 394, held on occasion of the dedication of Runnus's church, near Chalcedon. (Soz. Hist. Ecci. viii. 8. 3 ; Mansi, Concilia, vol. iii. p. 851.)
2. Bishop of Elearchia, in the Thebai'de, in the 4th and 5th centuries. To him is addressed the Canonical Epistle of Theophilus of Alexandria, ap. Synodicon Beveregii, vol. i. pt. 1, p. 170. Pape- brochius has published in a Latin version his Epistle to Theophilus, De Vita et Conversalione SS. Pachomii et Theodori (ap. Bolland. Ada Sanc torum, vol. xiv. p. 347, &c.). It contains an Epistle of St. Antony. [A. J. C.]
AMMONAS ('A^wVas) or AMOUN ('a/aov*/), : founder of one of the most celebrated monastic communities in Egypt. Obliged by his relations to marry, he persuaded his bride to perpetual continence (Sozom. Hist. Eccl. i. 14) by the authority 3f St. Paul's Epistle to the Corinthians. (Socr. Hist. Eccl. iv. 23.) They lived together thus for 18 years, when at her wish, for greater perfection, they parted, and he retired to Scetis and Mt. Nitria, to the south of Lake Mareotis, where he ived 22 years, visiting his sister-wife twice in the
year. (Ibid, and Pallad. Ifi4. Laus. c. 7 ; Ruffin. Vit.Patr. c. 29.) He died before St. Antony (from whom there is an epistle to him, S. Athan. Opp. vol. i. pt. 2, p. 959, ed. Bened.), i. e. before a. d. 365, for the latter asserted that he beheld the soul of Amoun borne by angels to heaven ( Vit. S. Antonii a S. Athanas. § 60), and as St. Athanasius^s history of St. Antony preserves the order of time, he died perhaps about a. d. 320. There are seventeen 01 nineteen Rules of Asceticism (Ke</>aAcua) ascribed ta him ; the Greek original exists in MS. (Lambechis^ Biblioth. Vindol. lib. iv. cod. 156, No. 6) ; they are published in the Latin version of Gerhard Vossius in the Biblioth. PP. Ascetica* vol. ii. p. 484, Paris. 1661. T'wenty-tiro Ascetic Institutions of the same Amoun, or one bearing the same name, exist also in MS. (Lambec. L c. Cod. 155, No. 2.) [A. J.C.]
AMMONIA (A^cwa), a surname of Hera, under which she was worshipped in Elis. The inhabitants of Elis had from the earliest times been in the habit of consulting the oracle of Zeus Ammon in Libya. (Pans. v. 15. § 7.) [L. S.J
AMMONIANUS (JA;ifuoi/iai/<Js), a Greek grammarian, who lived in the fifth century after Christ. He was a relation and a friend of the philosopher Syrianus, and devoted his attention to the stud}7- of the Greek poets. It is recorded of him that he had an ass, which became so fond of poetry from listening to its master, that it neglected its food. (Damascius, ap. Phot. p. 339, a., ed. Bekker; Suid. s. v. ^Auuwiavos and ^Oi/os Aupecs.)
AMMONIUS, a favourite of alexander Balas, king of Syria, to whom Alexander entrusted the entire management of public affairs. Am-monius was avaricious and cruel; he put to death numerous friends of the king, the queen Laodice, and AntigonuSj the son of Demetrius. Being detected in plotting against the life of Ptolemy Phi-lometor, about b. c. 147, the latter required Alexander to surrender Ammomus to him; but though Alexander refused to do this, Ammonius was put to death by the inhabitants of Antioch, whom Ptolemy had induced to espouse his cause, (Liv. Epit. 50; Joseph. Ant. xiii. 4. § 5 ; Diod. Exc. 29, p. 628, ed. Wess.)
AMMONIUS ('A/^wos) of alexandria, the son of Ammonius, was a pupil of Alexander, and one of the chief teachers in the grammatical school founded by Aristarchus. (Suid. s. v. 5A,u-/.i&vios.} He wrote commentaries upon Homer., Pindar, and Aristophanes, none of which are extant. (Fabric. Bibl. Grace, v. p. 712; Matter, Essais Jiistoriques sur F ecole d^Alexandre^ i. pp. 179,233.)
AMMONIUS ('Awt&vios), of alexandria, Presbyter and Oeconomus of the Church in that city, and an Egyptian by birth, a. d. 458. lie subscribed the Epistle sent by the clergy of Egypt to the emperor Leo, in behalf of the Council of Chalcedon. (Concilia, ed. Labbei, vol. iv. p. 807, b.) He wrote (in Greek) On the, Difference betiueen Nature and Person, against the Mono-physite heresy of Eutyches and Dioscorus (not extant); an Exposition of the Book of Acts (ap. Catena Grace. Pair, in Act. SS. Apostolorum, 8vo., Oxon. 1838, ed. Cramer) ; a Commentary on the Psalms (used by Nicetas in his Catena ; see Cod. 189, Biblioth. Coislin., ed. Montfauc. p. 244) ; On the Heaaiimeron (no remains) ; On St. Jb/m's Gospel^ which exists in the Catena Grae-corum Patrum in S. Joan. ed. Corderii, fol,?