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ANTIGONUS.

mis Gonatas. [antigonidae.] On the death of Demetrius II., b.c. 229, Antigonus was ap­pointed guardian of his son Philip, whence he Avas sometimes designated by the surname 'etti-TpoTros. (Athen. vi. p. 251, d.; Liv. xl, 54.) He married the widow of Demetrius, and almost immediately afterwards assumed the crown in his own right. At the commencement of his reign he was engaged in wars against the bar­barians on the borders of Macedonia, but after­wards took an active part in the affairs of Greece. He supported Aratus and the Achaean league against Cleomenes, king of Sparta, and the Aeto-lians, and was completely successful. He defeated Cleomenes, and took Sparta, but was recalled to Macedonia by an invasion of the Illyrians. He defeated the Iltyriaiis, and died in the same year (b. c. 220), after a reign of nine years. Polybius speaks favourably of his character, and commends him for his wisdom and moderation. He was suc­ceeded by Philip. V. (Justin, xxviii. 3, 4 ; Pint. Aral, and Cleom.; Polyb. ii. 45, &c., 70; Niebuhr, Kleine Schriften, p. 232, &c.) [aratus ; cleo-

IVJENES "1

ANTIGONUS ('Ai/ffyoi/os), son of echec-rates, the brother of Antigonus Doson, revealed to Philip V., king of Macedonia, a few months before his death, b. c. 179, the false accusations of his son Perseus against his other son Demetrius, In consequence of which Philip had put the latter

:o death. Indignant at the conduct of Perseus,

Philip appointed Antigonus his successor; but on lis death Perseus obtained possession of the throne, ind caused Antigonus to be killed. (Liv. xl. 54-58.)

ANTIGONUS GONATAS ('Avrlyovos IV 'aras), son of Demetrius Poliorcetes and Phila the daughter of Antipater), and grandson of An-igonus, king of Asia. [antigonidae.] When iis father Demetrius was driven out of Mace­donia by Pyrrhus, in b. c. 287, and crossed ver into Asia, Antigonus remained in Pelopon-.esus ; but he did not assume the title of .ing of Macedonia till after his father's death i Asia in b. c. 283. It was some years, how-ver, before he obtained possession of his pa-3rnal dominions. Pyrrhus was deprived of the ingdom by Lysimachus (b. c. 286); Lysimachus ras succeeded by Seleucus (280), who was mur-ered by Ptolemy Ceraunus. Ceraunus shortly fter fell in battle against the Gauls, and during ic next three years there was a succession of aimants to the throne. Antigonus at last ob-imed possession of the kingdom in 277, notwith-;anding the opposition of Antiochus, the son of eleucus, who laid claim to the crown in virtue of is father's conquests. But he withdrew his aim on the marriage of his half-sister, Phila, ith. Antigonus. He subsequently defeated the auls, and continued in possession of his king-mi till the return of Pyrrhus from Italy in 273, •ho deprived him of the whole of Macedonia, ith the exception of a few places. He recovered s dominions in the following year (272) on the sath of Pyrrhus at Argos, but was again de-ived of them by Alexander, the son of Pyrrhus. lexander, however, did not retain possession

the country long, and was compelled to retire ' the conquests of Demetrius, the brother or n of Antigonus, who now obtained part of peirus in addition to his paternal dominions. He

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ANTIGONUS.

subsequently attempted to prevent the formation of the Achaean league, and died in B. c. 239, at the age of eighty, after a reign of forty-four years. He was succeeded by Demetrius II. (Plut. Demetr. 51, Pyrrhus., 26; Justin, xxiv. 1, xxv. 1—3, xxvi. 2 ; Polyb. ii. 43, &c.; Lucian, Macrob. c. 11; Niebuhr, Kteine Schrijien, p. 227, &c.) Antigonus' surname Gonatas is usually derived from Gonnos or Gonni in Thessaly, which is supposed to have been the place of his birth or education. Niebuhr (/. c.), however, remarks, that Thessaly did not come into his father's possession till Antigonus had grown up, and he thinks that Gonatas is a Macedonian word, the same as the Romaic yovaras, which signifies an iron plate protecting the knee, and that Antigonus obtained this surname from wearing such a piece of defensive armour.

COIN OF ANTIGONUS GONATAS.

ANTIGONUS ('Ai/Tfyoj/os), king of judaea, the son of Aristobulus II. and the last of the Mac­cabees who sat on the royal throne. After his fa­ther had been put to death by Pompey's party, Antigonus was driven out of Judaea by Antipater and his sons, but was notable to obtain any assist­ance from Caesar's party. He was at length re­stored to the throne by the Parthians in B. c. 40. Herod, the son of Antipater, fled to Rome, and obtained from the Romans the title of king of Judaea, through the influence of Antony. Herod now marched against Antigonus, whom he defeated, and took Jerusalem, with the assistance of the Roman general Sosius, after a long and obstinate siege. Antigonus surrendered himself to Sosius,who hand­ed him over to Antony. Antony had him executed at Antioch as a common malefactor in b. c. 37. (Joseph. Aiiiiq. xiv. 13-16, B. J. i. 13, 14; Dion Cass. xlix. 22. Respecting the difference in chro­nology between Josephus and Dion Cassius, see Wernsdorf, de Fide Librorum Maccab. p. 24, and Ideler, Clironol. ii. p. 389, &c.)

ANTIGONUS ('Ai/riyovos), a writer on paint­ ing, mentioned by Diogenes Laertius (vii. 12), is perhaps the same as the sculptor, whom we know to have written on statuary. [P. S.]

ANTIGONUS, a general of perseus in the war with the Romans, was sent to Aenia to guard the coast. (Liv. xliv. 26, 32.)

ANTIGONUS, a Greek sculptor, and an eminent writer upon his art, was one of the artists who represented the battles of Attains and Eumenes against the Gauls. (Plin. xxxiv. 19. § 24.) He lived, therefore, about 239 b. c., when Attalus I., king of Pergamus, conquered the Gauls. A little further on, Pliny (§ 26) says, "Antigonus et pe- rixyomenon, tyrannicidasque supra dictos," where one of the best MSS. has "Antignotus et luctatores, perixyomenon," &c. [P. S.]

ANTIGONUS ('AvTfyoz/os), a Greek army surgeon, mentioned by Galen, who must therefore have lived in or before the second century after Christ. (Galen, De Compos. Medicam. sec. Locos, ii. 1, vol. xii. pp.557, 580.) Marcellus Empiricus quotes a physician of the same name, who may

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