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Joseph. Ant. xii. 3. §3; Diod. Exc. pp. 573— 575, ed. Wess.; Strab. xvi. p. 744 ; Frb'hlich, Annettes, p. 39 ; Eckhel, iii. p. 220, &c.) Apollo is represented on the reverse of the foregoing coin.
ANTIOCHUS IV. ('Avrioxos), king of syria, surnamed EPIPHANES ('E7r((^a^s), and on coins Theos (®eos) also, was the son of Antiochus III., and was given as a hostage to the Romans in b. c. 188. He was released from captivity in B. c. 175 through his brother Seleucus Philopator, who gave his own son Demetrius in his stead. While Antiochus was at Athens on his return to Syria In this year, Seleucus was murdered by Heliodo-rus, who seized upon the crown. Antiochus, however, with the assistance of Attains easily expelled the usurper, and ascended the throne in the same year. (b. c. 175.) Demetrius remained at Rome.
COIN OF ANTIOCHUS IV.
Cleopatra, the sister of Antiochus, who had been betrothed to Ptolemy Epiphanes, was now dead, and Antiochus therefore claimed the provinces of Coele-Syria and Palestine, which had been given as her dowry. As the Romans were at this time engaged in a war with Perseus, king of Macedonia, Antiochus thought it a favourable opportunity to prosecute his claims, and accordingly declared war against Egypt. In four campaigns (b. c. 171—168), he not only obtained possession of the countries to which he laid claim, but almost completed the conquest of Egypt, and was preparing to lay siege to Alexandria, when a Roman embassy commanded him to retire from the country. This command he thought it most prudent to obey, but he still retained possession of Coele-Syria and Palestine. The cruelties which Antiochus perpetrated against the Jews during this war, are recorded in the books of the Maccabees, and have rendered his name infamous. He took Jerusalem on his return from his second campaign into Egypt (b. c. 170), and again at the end of the fourth campaign (b. c. 168), and endeavoured to root out the Jewish religion and introduce the worship of the Greek divinities ; but this attempt led to a rising of the Jewish people, under Mattathias and his heroic sons the Maccabees, which Antiochus was unable to put down. Lysias, who was sent against them with a large armjr, was defeated; and Antiochus, who was in the eastern provinces at the time, hastened his return in order to avenge the disgrace .which had befallen his arms. On his return he attempted to plunder a temple in Elymais, probably the same as his father had attacked, but was repulsed, and shortly afterwards died at Tabae in Persia, in a state of raving madness, which the Jews and Greeks equally attributed to his sacrilegious crimes. His subjects gave him the name of Epimanes in parody of Epiphanes
He died in b. c. 164, after a reign of 11 years* He left a son, Antiochus Eupator, who succeeded him, and a daughter, Laodice. (Liv. lib. xli.— xlv.; Polyb. lib. xxvi.—xxxi.; Justin, xxiv. 3 ; Diod. Exc. pp. 579, 583, &c.7 ed. Wess.; Appiany Syr. 45? 66 ; Maccab. lib. i. ii.; Joseph. Ant. xii. 5 ; Hieronym. ad Dan. c. 11 ; Eckhel. iii. p. 222, &c.) On the reverse of the foregoing coin Jupiter is represented, holding a small figure of Victory in, his right hand, and a spear in his left.
ANTIOCHUS V. '('Ayrfoxoy), king of syria, surnamed EUPATOR (Emrarajp), was nine years old at his father's death, and reigned nominally for two years. (b. c. 164—162.) Lysias assumed the guardianship of the young king, though Antiochus IV. had appointed Philip to this office. Lysias. accompanied by the young king, continued the war against the Jews, and laid siege to Jerusalem ; but hearing that Philip was marching against him from Persis, he concluded a peace with the Jews. He then proceeded against Philip, whom he conquered and put to death. The Romans, availing themselves of the distracted state of Syria, sent an embassy to enforce the terms of the peace which had been concluded with Antiochus the Great; but an insurrection was excited in consequence of these commands, in which Octavius7 the chief of the embassy, was slain. About the same time Demetrius Soter, the son of Seleucus Philopator, who had remained in Rome up to this
time [see antiochus IV.], appeared in Syria and
laid claim to the throne. Lysias and the young king fell into his hands, and were immediately put to death by him, b. c. 162. (Polyb. xxxi. 12, 19 j Appian, Syr. 46, 66 ; Joseph. Ant. xii. 10 ; 1 Mac-cab, vi., &c.; 2 Maccab. xiii., &c.; Cic. Phil. ix. 2.) Apollo is represented on the reverse of the annexed coin, as in those of Antiochus I. and III. The inscription at the foot, ETHATOPO^, is partly cut off.
COIN OF ANTIOCHUS V.
ANTIOCHUS VI. ('Arrfoxos), king of syria. surnamed THEOS (©eo's), and on coins Epiphanes Dionysus ('ettk/xx^s Aiow<ros), was the son o: Alexander Balas, king of Syria [see p. 114, b.] and remained in Arabia after his father's death ii B. c. 146. Two years afterwards (b. c. 144) while he was still a youth, he was brought for ware as a claimant to the crown against Demetriu Nicator by Tryphon, or Diodotus, who had beei one of his father's chief ministers. Tryphon me with great success ; Jonathan and Simon, th leaders of the Jews, joined his party ; and Antic chus was acknowledged as king by the greate part of Syria. But Tryphon, who had all alon intended to secure the royal power for himself, an had brought forward Antiochus only for this piu pose, now put the young prince to death an ascended the throne, B, c. 142. (1 Maccab. xi &c. ; Joseph. Antiq. xiii. 6, &c. ; Strab. xvi. ] 752 ; Justin, xxxvi. 1 ; Liv. Epit. 55.) The r<