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On this page: Antiphus – Antistates – Antisthenes

ANTIPHON.

phonte, OratoreAttico, Leyden, 1765, 4to., reprinted in Ruhnken's Opuscula, and in Reiske's and Dob-son's Greek orators; Taylor, Lect. Lysiac. vii. p. 268, &c., ed. Reiske; Westerrnann, GescMchte der Griech. Beredtsamkeit) §§40 and 41.

2. A tragic poet, whom Plutarch ( Vit. X. Orat. p. 833),' Philostratns (Vit. Soph. i. 15. § 3), and others, confound with the Attic orator Anti-phon, who was put to death at Athens in b. c. 411. Now Antiphon the tragic poet lived at Syracuse, at the court of the elder Dionysius, who did not assume the tyranny till the year b. c. 406, that is, five years after the death of the Attic orator. The poet Antiphon is said to have written dramas in conjunction with the tyrant, who is not known to have shewn his pas­sion for writing poetry until the latter period of his life. These circumstances alone, if there were not many others, would shew that the orator and the poet were two different persons, and that the latter must have survived .the former many years. The poet was put to death by the tyrant, accord­ing to some accounts, for having used a sarcastic expression in regard to tyranny, or, according to others, for having imprudently censured the ty­rant's compositions. (Plut., Philostr. II. cc.; Aris-tot. Khet. ii. 6.) We still know the titles of five of Antiphon's tragedies: viz. Meleager, Andro­mache, Medeia, Jason, and Philoctetes. (Bode, Gescli. der Dram. Dichik. der Hellen. i. p. 554, &c.)

3. Of Athens, a sophist and an epic poet, Suidas, who says that he was surnamed Ao7o-'j.d'yeipos, and others state, that he occupied him­self with the interpretation of signs. He wrote i work on the interpretation of dreams, which s referred to by Artemidorus, Cicero, and others, Artemid. Oneirocr. ii. 14; Cic. de Divin. i. 20, >1, ii. 70.) He is unquestionably the same per-on as the Antiphon who was an opponent of Socrates, and who is mentioned by Xenophon Memorub. i. 6. § 1 ; compare Diog. Lae'rt. ii. 46 ; ienec. Controv. 9), and must be distinguished from he rhetorician Antiphon of Rhamnus, as well as :om the tragic poet of the same name, although he ancients themselves appear to have been doubt-il as to who the Antiphon mentioned by Xeno-hon really was. (Ruhnken, Opuscule^ i. pp. 148, ;c,, 169, &c., ed. Friedemann.) Not a line of his oems is extant.

4. The youngest brother of Plato, whose name le philosopher has immortalised in his dialogue Parmem'des." (Plut. de Frat. Amor. p. 484, f.) he father of Plato's wife was likewise called .ntiphon. (Plut, de Genio Socrat.}

5. An Athenian, and a contemporary of De-osthenes. For some offence his name was Faced from the list of Athenian citizens, where-Don he went to Philip of Macedonia. He edged himself to the king, that he would de­coy by fire the Athenian arsenal in Peiraeeus ; it when he arrived there with this intention, s was arrested by Demosthenes and accused of sachery. He was found guilty, and put to ath in B. c. 342. (Dem. de Coron. p. 2/1; echow, de Aeschinis Orat. Vita, p, 73, &c.; aes-:j.nes, p. 38.)

6. A Greek sophist, who lived before the time Aristotle, and whose opinions respecting the adrature of the circle, and the genesis of things, j mentioned by this philosopher. (Aristot. So-ist. Ekncli. i. 10, Phys, i. 2, ii. 1.)

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ANTISTHENES.

7. A Greek author, who wrote an account of men distinguished for virtue (irepl r&v ev apery TrputTevcrdvTGw'), one of whom was Pythagoras. (Diog. Lae'rt. viii. 3 ; Porphyr. de Vit. Pythag. p. 9.)

8. A writer on agriculture, mentioned by Athe- naeus. (xiv. p. 650.) [L. S.]

ANTIPHUS ("Arrives). 1. A son of Priam and Hecuba. (Horn. II. iv. 490 ; Apollod. iii. 12. § 5."I While he was tending the flocks on mount Ida with his brother Isus, he was made prisoner by Achilles, but was restored to freedom after a ransom was given for him. Pie afterwards fell by the hands of Agamemnon. (Horn.//, ix. 101, &c.)

2. A son of Thessalus, and one of the Greek heroes at Troy. He and his brother Pheiclippus joined the Greeks with thirty ships, and com­ manded the men of Carpathos, Casos, Cos, and other islands. (Horn. II. ii. 675, &c.) According to Hyginus (Fab. 97) he was a son of Mnesylus and Chalciope. Four other mythical personages of this name are mentioned in Horn. //. ii. 846, Gd. ii. 19, xvii. 68 ; Apollod,, i. 7. § 3. [L. S.]

ANTISTATES, CALLAESCHRUS, ANTI- MA'CHIDES, and PORI'NOS, were the archi­ tects who laicl the foundations of the temple of Zeus Olympius at Athens, under Peisistratus. (Vitruv. vii. Praef. § 15.) [P. S.]

ANTISTHENES ('A/"r«r0e^), an agrigbn-tine, is mentioned by Diodorus (xiii. 84) as an instance of the immense wealth which private citi­zens possessed at Agrigentnm. When Ms daughter was married, more than 800 carriages went in the nuptial procession.

ANTISTHENES ('AvrurOev-ns), a cynic philosopher, the son of Antisthenes, an Athenian, was the founder of the sect of the Cynics, which of all the Greek schools of philosophy was per­haps the most devoid of any scientific purpose. He flourished b. c. 366 (Diod. xv. 76), and his mother was a Thracian (Suidas, s. v.; Diog. Lae'rt. vi. 1), though some say a Phrygian, an opinion probably derived from his replying to a man who reviled him as not being a genuine Athenian citizen, that the mother of the gods waa a Phrygian, In his youth he fought at Tanagra (b. c. 426), and was a disciple first of Gorgias, and then of Socrates, whom he never quitted, and at whose death he was present. (Plat. Phaed. § 59.) He never forgave his master's persecutors, and is even said to have been instrumental in procuring their punishment. (Diog. Lae'rt. vi. 10.) lie survived the battle of Leuctra (b. c. 371), as he is reported to have compared the victory of the Thebans to a set of schoolboys beating their mas­ter (Plut. Lycury. 30), and died at Athens, at the age of 70. (Eudocia, Violarium, p. 56.) He taught in the Cynosarges, a gymnasium for the use of Athenians born of foreign mothers, near the temple of Hercules. Hence probably his followers were called Cynics, though the Scholiast on Aristotle (p. 23, Brandis) deduces the name from the habits of the school, either their clog-like neglect of all forms and usages of society, sleeping in tubs and in the streets, and eating whatever they could find, or from their shameless insolence, or else their perti­nacious adherence to their own opinions, or lastly from their habit of driving from them all whom they thought unfit for a philosophical life. His writings were very numerous, and chiefly dialogues, some of them being vehement attacks on his con­temporaries, as on Alcibiades in the second of his

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