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ANTONIUS.

was obliged to return uninjured to his solitude. As his peace began to be more and more disturbed by the number of visitors, he withdrew further east to a mountain which is called mount St. An­tonius to this day; but he nevertheless frequently visited the towns of Egypt, and formed an intimate friendship with Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria. During the exile of the latter from Alexandria, Antonius wrote several letters on his behalf to the emperor Constantine. The emperor did not grant his request, but shewed great esteem for the Egyp­tian hermit, and even invited him to Constantinople. Antonius, however, declined this invitation. His attempts to use his authority against the Arians in Egypt were treated with contempt by their leaders. After the restoration of Athanasius, Antonius at the age of 104 years went to Alexandria to see his friend once more, and to exert his last powers against the Arians. His journey thither resembled a triumphal procession, every one wishing to catch a glimpse of the great Saint and to obtain his blessing. After having wrought sundry miracles at Alexandria, he returned to his mountains, where he died on the 17th of January, 356. At his ex­press desire his favourite disciples buried his body in the earth and kept the spot secret, in order that his tomb might not be profaned by vulgar supersti­tion. This request, together with the sentiments expressed in his sermons, epistles, and sentences still extant, shew that Antonius was far above the majority of religious enthusiasts and fanatics of

those times, and a more sensible man than he ap­ pears in the much interpolated biography by St. Athanasius. We have twenty epistles which go by the name of Antonius, but only seven of them are generally considered genuine. About A. d. 800 they were translated from the Egyptian into Arabic, and from the Arabic they were translated into Latin and published by Abraham Ecchellensis, Paris, 1641, 8vo. The same editor published in 1646, at Paris, an 8vo. volume containing various sermons, exhortations, and sentences of Antonius. (S. Athanasii, Vita S. Antonii, Gr. et Lett. ed. Hoeschel, Augustae Vindel. 1611, 4to.; Socrat. Hist. Eccles. i. 21, iv. 23, 25 ; Sozom. Hist. Ecdes. i. 3, ii. 31, 34; comp. Cave, Script. Ecd. Hist. Lit. i. p. 150, &c.) [L. S.]

ANTONIUS, a physician, called by Galen o pi^rrd/xos, "the herbalist," who must have lived in or before the second century after Christ. His medical formulae are several times quoted by Galen (De Compos. Medicam. sec. Locos, ii. 1, vol. xii. p. 557 ; De Compos. Medicam. sec. Gen. vi. 15, vol. xiii. p. 935), and he is perhaps the same per­ son who is called (pa/^a/coTrcoA?^, " the druggist." (De Compos. Medicam. sec. Locos, ix. 4, vol. xiii. p. 281.) Possibly they may both be identical with Antonius Castor [castor, antonius], but of this there is no proof whatever. A treatise on the Pulse (Opera., vol. xix. p. 629), which goes under Galen's name, but which is probably a spurious compilation from his other works on this subject, is addressed to a person named Antonius, who is there called <!?i\o/*aQr}s /cat &t\6(TO(f)os ; and Galen wrote his work De Propriorum Animi cujusdam Ajfectuum Dignotione et Curatione (Opera, vol. v. p. 1, &c.) in answer to a somewhat similar treatise by an Epicurean philosopher of this name, who, however, does not appear to have been a physician. [W. A. G.]

ANTONIUS ATTICUS. [atticus.]

ANUBIS.

ANTONIUS CASTOR. [castor.] ANTO'NIUS DIO'GENES. [diogenes.] ANTO'NIUS FELIX. [felix.] ANTO'NIUS FLAMMA. [flamma.] ANTO'NIUS GNIPHO. [gnipho.] ANTO'NIUS HONORATUS. [honoratus.] ANTO'NIUS JULIA'NUS. [julianus.] ANTO'NIUS LIBERA'LIS. [liberalis.] ANTO'NIUS MUSA. [MusA.] ANTO'NIUS NASO. [naso.] ANTO'NIUS NATA'LIS. [natalis.] ANTO'NIUS NOVELLUS. [novellus.] ANTO'NIUS PO'LEMO. [polemo.] ANTO'NIUS PRIMUS. [primus.] ANTO'NIUS RUFUS. [rufus.] ANTO'NIUS SATURNI'NUS. [saturni-

NUS.]

ANTONIUS TAURUS. [taurus.] ANTO'NIUS THALLUS. [thallus.] ANTO'RIDES, a painter, contemporary with Euphranor, and, like him, a pupil of Aristo, flou­ rished about 340 b. c. (Plin. xxxv. 37.) [P. S.] ANTYLLUS. [antonius, No. 18.] ANTYLLUS ("Az/ruAAos), an eminent physi­ cian and surgeon, who must have lived before the end of the fourth century after Christ, as he is quoted by Oribasius, and who probably lived later than the end of the second century, as he is no­ where mentioned by Galen. Of the place of his birth and the events of his life nothing is known, but he appears to have obtained a great reputation, and is mentioned in Cyrilli Alexandrini (?) Lexicon (in Cramer's Anecdota Graeca Parisiensia, vol. iv, p. 196) among the celebrated physicians of anti­ quity. He was rather a voluminous writer, bui none of his works are still extant except some fragments which have been preserved by Oribasius Aetius, and other ancient authors. These, how ever, are quite sufficient to shew that he was a mai of talent and originality. The most interesting extract from his works that has been preserved i probably that relating to the operation of trache otomy, of which he is the earliest writer whos directions for performing it are still extant. Th whole passage has been translated in the Diet, c Ant. s. v. Chirurgia. The fragments of Antyllu have been collected and published in a separat form, with the title Antylli, Veteris CMrurgi, t Aetyava ventilanda exhibit Panagiota Nicolaide Praeside Curtio Sprengd, Halae, 1799, 4to. F< particulars respecting the medical and surgic practice of Antyllus, see Haller, Biblioth. Ghirurt and BiUiotli. Medic. Pract. ; Snrengel, Hist, de Mid. [W. A. G.] ANU'BIS ("Ai/ougw), an Egyptian divinit worshipped in the form of a dog, or of a hum; being with a dog's head. In the worship of tl divinity several phases must be distinguished, as the case of Ammon. It was in all probability o ginally a fetish, and the object of the worship the dog, the representative of that useful species animals. Subsequently it was mixed up and co bined with other religious systems, and Ami assumed a symbolical or astronomical character, least in the minds of the learned. The worship dogs in Egypt is sufficiently attested by Herodo (ii. 66), and there are traces of its having bt known in Greece at an early period; for a 1 ascribed to the mythical Rhadamanthys of Ci commanded, that men should not swear by gods, but by a goose3 a dog, or a ram. (Eust<

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