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The treatise we now possess, bearing the title caelii apicii de opsoniis et condimentis, sive de re culinaria^ Libri decem, appears to have been first discovered by Enoch of Ascoli, about the year 1454, in the time of Pope Nicolas V., and the editio princeps was printed at Milan in 1498. It is a sort of Cook and Confectioner's Manual, containing a multitude of receipts for preparing and dressing all kinds of flesh, fish, and fowl, for compounding sauces, baking cakes, preserving sweetmeats, flavouring wines, and the like. From the inaccuracies and solecisms of the style, it is probable that it was compiled at a late period by some one who prefixed the name of Apicius, in order to attract attention and insure the circulation of his book. It is not without value, however, since it affords an insight into the details of a Roman kitchen which we seek for elsewhere in vain.
The best editions are those of Martin Lister, pub lished at London, in 1705, reprinted with additions by Almeloveen (Amstelod. 1709), and that of Bernhold (Marcobreit. 1787, Baruth. 1791, and Ansbach. 1800.) There is an illustrative work by Dierbach, entitled Flora Apiciana. (Heidelberg, 1831.) [W. R.]
APINIUS TIRO. [Tmo.]
APION ('attuoj/), a Greek grammarian. His name is sometimes incorrectly spelt Appion, and some v/riters, like Suidas, call him a son of Pleis-toneices, while others more correctly state that Pleistoneices was only a surname, and that he was the son of Poseidonius. (Gell. vi. 8 ; Senec. Epist. 88; Euseb. Praep. Evang. x. 10.) He was a native of Oasis, but used to say that he was born at Alexandria, where he studied under Apollonius, the son of Archibius, and Didymus, from whom he imbibed his love for the Homeric poems. (Suid. s. v. 'A-iriuv ; Joseph, c. Apion. ii. 3, &c.) He afterwards settled at Rome, where he taught rhetoric as the successor of the grammarian Theon in the reign of Tiberius and Claudius. He appears to have enjoyed an extraordinary reputation for his extensive knowledge and his versatility as an orator; but the ancients are unanimous in censuring his ostentatious vanity. (Gell. v. 14; Plin. H. N. Praef. andxxx. 6 ; Joseph, c. Apion, ii. 12.) He declared that every one whom he mentioned in his works would be immortalized ; he placed himself by the side of the greatest philosophers of ancient Greece, and used to say, that Alexandria ought to be proud of having a man like himself among its citizens. It is not unlikely that the name " cymbalum mundi," by which Tiberias was accustomed to call him, was meant to express both his loquacity and his boastful character. He is spoken of as the most active of grammarians, and the surname uox^os which he bore, according to Suidas, is usually explained as describing the zeal and labour with which he prosecuted his studies. In the reign of Caligula he travelled about in Greece, and was received everywhere with the highest honours as the great interpreter of Homer. (Senec. /. c.) About the same time, a. d. 38, the inhabitants of Alexandria raised complaints against the Jews residing in their city, and endeavoured to curtail their rights and privileges. They sent
an embassy to the emperor Caligula, which was headed by Apion, for he was a skilful speaker and known to entertain great hatred of the Jews. The latter also sent an embassy, which was headed by Philo. In this transaction Apion appears to have overstepped the limits of his commission, for he not only brought forward the complaints of his fellow-citizens, but endeavoured to excite the emperor's anger against the Jews by reminding him that they refused to erect statues to him and to swear by his sacred name. (Joseph. Ant. xviii. 10.) The results of this embassy, as well as the remaining part of Apion's life, are unknown; but if we may believe the account of his enemy Josephus (c. Apion. ii. 13), he died of a disease which he had brought upon himself by his dissolute mode of life.
Apion was the author of a considerable number of works, all of which are now lost with the ex ception of some fragments. 1. Upon Homer, whose poems seem to have formed the principal part of his studies, for he is said not only to have made the best recension of the text of the poems, but to have written explanations of phrases and words in the form of a dictionary (/Ve£ejs 'O/x^pi/ccct), and investigations concerning the life and native country of the poet. The best part of his Ae£efs 'QjuypiKai are supposed to be incorporated in the Homeric Lexicon of Apollonius. (Villoison, Pro- leg, ad Apollon. p. ix. &c.) Apion's labours upon Homer are often referred to by Eustathius and other grammarians, 2. A work on Egypt (Alyvir- na/ca), consisting of five books, which was highly valued in antiquity, for it contained descriptions of nearly all the remarkable objects in Egypt. It also contained numerous attacks upon the Jews. (Euseb. Praep. Evang. x. 10 j Gell. v. 14; Plin. H. N. xxxvii. 19.) 3. A work against the Jews. (Euseb. I. c.) A reply to these attacks is made by Josephus, in the second book of his work usually called Kara 'A-rnWos, and this reply is the only source from which we learn anything about the character of Apion's work. 4. A work in praist of Alexander the Great. (Gell. vi. 8.) 5. Historic,' of separate countries. ('Icr-ropia Kara eOz/os, Suid s. v. 'ATnW.) 6. On the celebrated glutton Apicius and, 7. Hepl rtfs Pco^cu/ajs SiaXescrov. (Athen. vii p. 294, xv. p. 680.) 8. De metallica discipline (Plin. Elench. lib. xxxv.) The greatest fragment of the works of Apion are the story about Andrc clus and his lion, and about the dolphin nea Dicaearchia, both of which are preserved in Gelliu: Suidas (s. vv. 'Ayvprys, crTriAaoes, (T<pdpayov, an rply\r\va) refers to Apion as a writer of epigram but whether he is the same as the grammarian uncertain. (Villoison, I. c.; Burigny, in the Me) de rAcad. des Inscript. xxxviii. p. 171, &e.; Lehi Quaest. Epicae, Dissert, i., who chiefly discuss what Apion did for Homer.) [L. S.]
APION, PTOLEMAEUS. [ptolemae apion.]
APIS C* ati-is). 1. A son of Phoroneus by t nymph Laodice, and brother of Niobe. He ^ king of Argos, established a tyrannical governme and called Peloponnesus after his own name Ap: but he was killed in a conspiracy headed by Th xion and Telchis. (Apollod. i. 7. 6, ii. 1. § In the former of these passages Apollodorus stal that Apis, the son of Phoroneus, was killed Aetolus ; but this is a mistake arising from confusion of our Apis? with Apis the son of Jag