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2 US APOLLODORUS.
Thence he drew his line of imitation, and personified the central form of the class to which his object belonged, and to which the rest of its qualities administered, without being absorbed : agility was not suffered to destroy firmness, solidity, or weight; nor strength and weight agility; elegance did not degenerate to effeminancy, or grandeur swell to hugeness." Fuseli justly adds that these principles of style seem to have been exemplified in his two works of which Pliny has given us the titles, a worshipping priest, and Ajax struck by lightning, the former being the image of piety, the latter of impiety and blasphemy. A third picture by Apollodorus is mentioned by the Scholiast on the Pluttis of Aristophanes, (v. 385 )
Apollodorus made a great advance in colouring. He invented chiaroscuro ($>8opa.v teal diroxp&o'iv <r/aas, Plut. de Gloria Atlien. 2). Earlier painters, Dionysius for example (Plut. Timol. 36), had attained to the quality which the Greeks called rofos-, that is, a proper gradation of light and shade, but Apollodorus was the first who heightened this effect by the gradation of tints, and thus obtained what modern painters call tone. Hence he was called ffKiaypdtyos, (Hesychius, s. -y.) Pliny says that his pictures were the first that rivetted the eyes, and that he was the first who conferred due honour upon the pencil, plainly because the cestrum was an inadequate instrument for the production of those effects of light and shade which Apollodorus produced by the use of the pencil. In this state he delivered the art to Zeuxis [zeuxis], upon whom he is said to have written verses, complaining that he had robbed him of his art. Plutarch (I. c.) says, that Apollodorus inscribed upon his works the verse which Pliny attributes to Zeuxis,
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2. A sculptor, who made statues in bronze. He was so fastidious that he often broke his works in pieces after they were finished, and hence he obtained the surname of "•' the madman," in which character he was represented by the sculptor Silanion. (Plin. xxxiv. 19. § 21.) Assuming from this that the two artists were contemporary, Apollodorus flourished about 324 b. c.
A little further on (§ 26) Pliny names an Apollodorus among the artists who had made bronze statues of philosophers.
On the base of the " Venus di Medici," Apollodorus is mentioned as the father of Cleomenes. Thiersch (Epochen, p. 292) suggests, that he may have been the same person as the subject of this article, for that the statue of the latter by Silanion may have been made from tradition at any time after his death. But Apollodorus is so common a Greek name that no such conclusion can be drawn from the mere mention of it.
3. Of Damascus, lived under Trajan and Ha drian. The former emperor employed him to build his Forum, Odeum, and Gymnasium, at Rome ; the latter, on account of some indiscreet words uttered by the architect, first banished him and afterwards put him to death. (Dion Cass. Ixix, 4; Spartian. Hadrian. 19.) [P. S.]
APOLLODORUS, a Graeco-Roman jurist, and one of the commission appointed by Theodosius the Younger to compile the Theodosian Code. In A. d. 429 he appears as comes and inagister memoriae (Cod. Th. 1. tit. 1. s. 5), and he appears as comes sacri consistorii in the years 435 and 438.
(Cod. Th. 1. tit. 1. s. 6 ; Nov. 1. Theod. II., printed in the Bonn Corpus Juris Antcjust. as ;i second preface to the Theod. Cod.) There seems to be no reason, beyond sameness of name and nearness of date, to identify him with the Apollodorus who was comes rei privatae under Arcadius and Honorius, A. d. 396, and was proconsul of Africa in the years 399 and 400. (Cod. Th. 11. tit. 36. s. 32; *16. tit. 11. s. 1.) To Apollodorus, proconsul of Africa, are addressed some of the letters of Symmachus, who was connected with him by affinity, (viii. 4, ix. 14, 48.) [J.-T. G.]
APOLLODORUS ('AiroAArfSwpos), the name of two physicians mentioned by Pliny (H. N. xx. 13), one of whom was a native of Citium, in Cyprus, the other of Tarentum. Perhaps it was one of these who wrote to Ptolemy, king of Egypt, giving him directions as to what wines he should drink (ibid. xiv. 9), though to which king of this name his precepts were addressed is not mentioned. A person of the same name wrote a work, Tlepl Mupcoy Kcd Sr6(|>ai/wz>, On Ointments and Chaplets, quoted by Athenaeus (xv. p. 675), and another, quoted by the same author, Uepl ©rjpiwv, On Venomous Animals (ibid. xv. p. 681), which is possibly the work that is several times referred to by Pliny, (ff. JV. xxii. 15, 29, &c.) [W. A. G.]
Stymphalus. The majority of the Argives were hostile towards Cassander, and while Apollonides was engaged in Arcadia, they invited Alexander, the son of Polysperchon, and promised to surrender their town to him. But Alexander was not quick enough in his movements, and Apollonides, who seems to have been informed of the plan, suddenly returned to Argos. About 500 senators were at the time assembled in the prytaneum: Apollonides had all the doors of the house well guarded, that none of them might escape, and then set fire to it so that all perished in the flames. The othei Argives who had taken part in the conspiracy were partly exiled and partly put to death. (Diod xix. 63.)
2. A boeotian, an officer in the Greek armj which supported the claims of Cyrus the Younger He was a man of no courage, and the difficulties which the Greeks had to encounter led him to oppose Xenophon, and to urge the necessity of enter ing into friendly relations with king Artaxerxes He was rebuked by Xenophon, and deprived o his office for having said things unworthy of i Greek. (Xenoph. Anab. iii. 1. § 26, &c.)
3. Of cardia, to whom Philip of Macedoni; assigned for his private use the whole territory o the Chersonesus. (Demosth. de Hal-ones, p. 86. Apollonides was afterwards sent by Charidemus a ambassador to Philip. (Demosth. c.Aristocr. p. 681.
4. Of chios, was during the eastern expeditio] of Alexander the Great one of the leaders of th Persian party in his native island; but whil Alexander was in Egypt, Apollonides was con quered by the king's admirals, Hegelochus an* Amphoterus. He and several of his partizan were taken prisoners and sent to Elephantine ii Egypt, where they were kept in close imprison ment. (Arrian, Anal. iii. 2 ; Curtius, iv. 5.)