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On this page: Arcadius – Arcas – Arcathias – Arce – Arceisiades – Arceisius – Arceophon – Arcesilaus

ARCATHIAS.

named Thaumastorita, several passages from which are quoted in the Acts of the second council of Nice. A few other works, which exist in MS., are ascribed to him. (Fabric. Bib. Graec. xi. pp. 578, 579, xii. p. 179.) Cave (Diss. de Script. Incert. Aet. p. 4) places him before the eighth century. [P. S.]

ARCADIUS (ApKdSios) of Antioch, a Greek grammarian of uncertain date, but who did not live before 200 a. d., was the author of several grammatical works, of which Suidas mentions Hepl opBoypafyiaSy Oepl crvvrd^ccos twv tov \6yov juepwz', and >Oz/ojuacTTf/<:oj'. A work of his on the accents (TLepl t&v&v) has come down to us, and was first published by Barker from a manuscript at Paris. (Leipzig, 1820.) It is also included in the first volume of Dindorf's Gramat. Graec. Lips. 1823.

ARCAS CApnas], 1. The ancestor and epony-mic hero of the Arcadians, from whom the country and its inhabitants derived their name. He was a son of Zeus by Callisto, a companion of Artemis. After the death or the metamorphosis of his mother [callisto], Zeus gave the child to Maia, and called him Areas. (Apollod. iii. 8. § 2.) Areas became afterwards by Leaneira or Meganeira the lather of Elatus and Apheidas. (Apollod. iii. 9. § 1.) According to Hyginus (Fab. 176, Poet. Astr. ii. 4) Areas was the son of Lycaon, whose flesh the fa­ther set before Zeus, to try his divine character. Zeus upset the table (rpdirefa) which bore the dish, and destroyed the house of Lycaon by light­ning, but restored Areas to life. When Areas had grown up, he built on the site of his father's house the town of Trapezus. When Areas once during the chase pursued his mother, who was metamor­phosed into a she-bear, as far as the sanctuary of the Lycaean Zeus, which no mortal was allowed to enter, Zeus placed both of them among the stars. (Ov. Met. ii. 410, &c.) According to Pausanias (viii. 4. § 1, &c.), Areas succeeded Nyctimus in the government of Arcadia, and gave to the coun­try which until then had been called Pelasgia the name of Arcadia, He taught his subjects the arts of making bread and of weaving. He was married to the nymph Erato, by whom he had three sons, Elatus, Apheidas, and Azan, among whom he di­vided his kingdom. He had one illegitimate son, Autolaus, whose mother is not mentioned. The tomb of Areas was shewn at Mantineia, whither his remains had been carried from mount Maenalus at the command of the Delphic oracle. (Paus. viii. 9. § 2.) Statues of Areas and his family were de­dicated at Delphi by the inhabitants of Tegea. (x. 9. § 3.)

2. A surname of Herrnes. (Lucan, Pliars. ix. 661; Martial, ix. 34. 6 ; hermes.) [L. S.]

ARCATHIAS ('ApKaQias), a son of Mithri-dates, joined Neoptolemus and Archelaus, the generals of his father, with 10,000 horse, which he brought from the lesser Armenia, at the com­mencement of the war with the Romans, b. c. 88. He took an active part in the great battle fought near the river Amneius or Amnias (see Strab. xii. p. 562) in Paphlagonia, in which Nicomedes, the king of Bithynia, was defeated. Two years after­wards, b. c. 86, he invaded Macedonia with a separate army, and completely conquered the coun­try. He then proceeded to march against Sulla, but died on the way at Tidaeum (Potidaea?) (Appian, Mitlir. 17, 18, 359 41.)

ARCESILAUS.

ARCE (''Ap/o?), a daughter of Thaumas and sis­ ter of Iris, who in the contest of the gods with the Titans sided with the latter. Zeus afterwards punished her for this by throwing her into Tartarus and depriving her of her wings, which were given to Thetis at her marriage with Peleus. Thetis afterwards fixed these wings to the feet of her son Achilles, who was therefore called .TroSap/cTjs. (Pto- lem. Hephaest. 6.) [L. S.]

ARCEISIADES (' ApKeiffidSys), a patronymic from Arceisius, the father of Laertes, who as well as his son Odysseus are designated by the name of Arceisiades, (Horn. Od. xxiv. 270, iv. 755.) [L. S.J

ARCEISIUS (ApKeiffios), a son of Zeus and Euryodia, husband of Chalcomedusa and father of Laertes. (Horn. Od. xiv. 182, xvi. 118; Apollod. i. 9. § 16 ; Ov. Met. xiii. 145 ; Eustath, ad Horn. p. 1796.) According to Hyginus (Fab. 189), he was a son of Cephalus and Procris, and according to others, of Cephalus and a she-bear. (Eustath. ad Horn. p. 1961, comp. p. 1756.) [L. S.]

ARCEOPHON (5Ap/ceo4>c^)7 a son of Minny-rides of Salamis in Cyprus. Antoninus Liberalis (39) relates of him and Arsinoe precisely the same story which Ovid (Met. xiv. 698, &c.) relates of Anaxarete and Iphis. [anaxarete.] [L. S.]

ARCESILAUS ('Apiceo-iXaos), a son of Lycus and Theobule, was the leader of the Boeotians in the Trojan war. He led his people to Troy in ten ships, and was slain by Hector. (Horn. //. ii. 495, xv. 329 ; Hygin. Fab. 97.) According to Pausa­ nias (ix. 39. § 2) his remains were brought back to Boeotia, where a monument was erected to his memory in the neighbourhood of Lebadeia. A son of Odysseus and Penelope of the name of Arcesi- laus is mentioned by Eustathius. (Ad Horn. p. 1796.) [L. S.]

ARCESILAUS ('A/wetrfAaos). 1. The name of four kings of Cyrene. [battus and bat-tiadae.]

2. The murderer of Archagathus, the son of Agathocles, when the latter left Africa, b. c. 307. Arcesilaus had formerly been a friend of Agathocles. (Justin, xxii. 8 ; agathocles, p. 64.)

3. One of the ambassadors sent to Rome by the Lacedaemonian exiles about b. c. 183, who was intercepted by pirates and killed. (Polyb. xxiv. 11.)

4. Of Megalopolis, was one of those who dis­suaded the Achaean league from assisting Perseus in the war against the Romans in b. c. 170. In the following years he was one of the ambassadors sent by the league to attempt the reconciliation of Antiochus Epiphanes and Ptolemy. (Polyb. xxviii. 6, xxix. 10.)

ARCESILAUS ('Ap/ceo-fAaos) or ARCESILAS, the founder of the new Academy, flourished towards the close of the third century before Christ. (Comp. Strab. i. p. 1 5.) He was the son of Seuthes or Scythes (Diog. Lae'rt. iv. 18), and born at Pitane in Aeolis. His early education was entrusted to Autolycus, a mathematician, with whom he migrated to Sardis. Afterwards, at the wish of his elder brother and guardian, Moireas, he came 'to Athens to study rhetoric ; but becoming the disciple first of Theo-phrastus and afterwards of Grantor, he found his inclination led to philosophical pursuits. Not con­tent, however, with any single school, he left his early masters and studied under sceptical and dialec­tic philosophers ; and the line of Ariston upon him, UpoaSe TTAarcoi/, oiriOev Tlvppuv^ ^crcros AtJSwpos, described the course of his early education., as well

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