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On this page: Archidamus – Archidamus Iv – Archidamus V – Archidice – Archigenes – Archilochus



ARCHIDAMUS IV., king of Sparta, 23rd of the Eurypontids, was the son of Eudamidas I. and the grandson of Archidamus III. (Pint. Agis, 3.) He was king in b. c. 296, when he was defeated by Demetrius Poliorcetes. (Plut. Demetr. 3.5.)

ARCHIDAMUS V., king of Sparta, 27th of the Eurypontids, was the son of Eudamidas II., and the brother of Agis IV. On the murder of his brother Agis, in b. c. 240, Archidamus fled from Sparta, but obtained possession of the throne some time after the accession of Cleomenes, through the means of Aratus, who wished to weaken the power of the Ephors : it appears that Cleomenes also was privy to his recall. Archidamus was, however, slain almost immediately after his return to Sparta, by those who had killed his brother and who dreaded his vengeance. It is doubtful whether Cleomenes was a party to the murder. (Plut. Cleom. 1, 5 ; comp. Polyb. v. 37, viii. 1.) Archi­damus V. was the last king of the Eurypontid race. He left sons, who were alive at the death of Cleomenes in b. c. 220, but they were passed over, and the crown given to a stranger, Lycurgus. (Polyb. iv. 35 ; Clinton, F. H. ii. Append, c. 3.)

ARCHIDAMUS, the Aetolian, [archeda-mus, No. 3.]

ARCHIDAMUS ('Apxt/5aAtos)5 a Greek physi­ cian of whom no particulars are known, but who must have lived in the fourth or fifth century b. c., as Galen quotes one of his opinions (De Simpl. Medicam. Temper, ac Facult. ii. 5, &c., vol. xi. p, 471, &c.), which was preserved by Diocles of Carystus. A physician of the same name is men­ tioned by Pliny (H. N. Ind. Auct.), and a few fragments on veterinary surgery by a person named Archedemus are to be found in the " Vete- rinariae Medicinae Libri Duo," first published in Latin by J. Ruellius, Paris, 1530, fol., and after­ wards in Greek by S. Grynaeus, Basil. 1537, 4to. [W. A. G.]

ARCHIDICE ('Apx^t/o?), a celebrated hetaira of Naucratis in Egypt, whose fame spread through Greece, was arrogant and avaricious. (Herod, ii. 136 ; Aelian, V. H. xii. 63; Athen. xiii. p. 596, d.)

ARCHIGENES ('Apxiyevns), an eminent an­cient Greek physician, whose name is probably more familiar to most non-professional readers than that of many others of more real importance, from his being mentioned by Juvenal, (vi. 236, xiii. 98, xiv. 252.) He was the most celebrated of the sect of the Eclectici (Diet, of Ant. s.v. Eclectici), and was a native of Apamea in Syria ; he practised at Rome in the time of Trajan, a. d. 98-117, where he enjoy­ed a very high reputation for his professional skill. He is, however, reprobated as having been fond of introducing new and obscure terms into the science, and having attempted to give to medical writings a dialectic form, which produced rather the appear­ance than the reality of accuracy. Archigenes published a treatise on the pulse, on which Galen wrote a Commentary ; it appears to have contained a number of minute and subtile distinctions, many of which have no real existence, and were for the most part the result rather of a preconceived hypo­thesis than of actual observation; and the same remark may be applied to an arrangement which he proposed of fevers. He, however, not only en­joyed a considerable degree of the public confidence during his life-time, but left behind him a number of disciples, who for many years maintained a re­spectable rank in their profession. The name of


the father of Archigenes was Philippus; he was a pupil of Agathinus, whose life he once saved [agathinus] ; and he died at the age either of sixty-three or eighty-three. (Suid. s. v. 'Ap%iy.; Eudoc. Violar. ap. Villoison, Anecd. Gr. vol. i. p. 65.) The titles of several of his works are pre­ served, of which, however, nothing but a few fragments remain; some of these have been pre­ served by other ancient authors, and some are still in MS. in the King's Library at Paris. (Cramer's Anecd. Grr. Pans. vol. i. pp. 394, 395.) By some writers he is considered to have belonged to the sect of the Pneumatici. (Galen, Introd. c. 9. vol. xiv. p. 699.) For further particulars respecting Archigenes see Le Clerc, Hist, de la Mid.; Fabric. Bibl. Gr. vol. xiii. p. 80, ed. vet.; Sprengel, Hist, de la Med.; Haller, Bibl. Medic. Pract. vol. i. p. 198 ; Osterhausen, Hist. Sectae Pneumatic. Med. Altorf, 1791, 8vo.; Harless, Analecta Historico-Crit. de Archigene, fyc., Bamberg, 4to. 1816; Isensee, Gesch. der Med.; Bostock's History of Medicine, from which work part of the preceding account is taken. [W. A. G.J

ARCHILOCHUS ('A/>x^0X°s)5 of Paros, was one of the earliest Ionian lyric poets, and the first Greek poet who composed Iambic verses according to fixed rules. He flourished about 714-676 b. c. (Bode, GescJiichte der Lyr. Dichfk. i. pp. 38, 47.) He was descended from a noble family, who held the priesthood in Paros. His grandfather was Tellis, who brought the worship of Demeter intc Thasos, and whose portrait was introduced bj Polygnotus into his painting of the infernal regions at Delphi. His father was Telesicles, and his mo ther a slave, named Enipo. In the flower of hi; age (between 710 and 700 b. c.), and probabb after he had already gained a prize for his hymn t( Demeter (Schol. in AristopJi.Av. 1762), Archilochu went from Paros to Thasos with a colony, of whicl one account makes him the leader. The motiv for this emigration can only be conjectured. I was most probably the result of a political change to which cause was added, in the case of Archik chus, a sense of personal wrongs. He had been suitor to Neobule, one of the daughters of Lycarr bes, who first promised and afterwards refused t give his daughter to the poet. Enraged at th: treatment, Archilochus attacked the whole famil in an iambic poem, accusing Lycambes of perjur; and his daughters of the most abandoned live The verses were recited at the festival of Demete and produced such an eifect, that the daughters < Lycambes are said to have hung themselves throug shame. The bitterness which he expresses in h poems towards his native island (Athen. iii. p. 7 b.) seems to have arisen in part also from the lo estimation in which he was held, as being the s( of a slave. Neither was he more happy at Thasc He draws the most melancholy picture of h adopted country, which he at length quitted disgust. (Plut. de Eocil. 12. p. 604 ; Strabo, xi p. 648, viii. p. 370; Eustath. in Odyss. i. p. 22 Aelian, V. H. xii. 50.) While at Thasos, he i cur red the disgrace of losing his shield in an c gagement with the Thracians of the opposite co tinent; but, like Alcaeus under similar circir stances, instead of being ashamed of the disast he recorded it in his verse. Plutarch (Inst. Laa p. 239, b.) states, that Archilochus was banish from Sparta the very hour that he had arm-there, because he had written in his poems, tha

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