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upon the method of finding the time when Easter should be celebrated (iratrxaTuos jcavaJi/), which he dedicated to Andronicus, praefect of the town of Aenus in Thessaly. It was first edited, with a Latin translation and notes, by J. Christmann, at Heidelberg, 1611, 4to., and was afterwards insert ed by Petavius in his " Uranologium" (Paris, 1630, fol., and Antwerp, 1703, fol.), with a new Latin translation and notes; but the last chap ter of the work, which is contained in Christ- inann's edition and had been published before by Jos. Scaliger, is wanting in the " Uranologium." Petavius inserted in his " Uranologium" also a second " canon paschalis" (iii. p. 384), which he ascribes to Argyrus, but without having any authority for it. There exist in various European libraries, in MS., several works of Argyrus, which have not yet been printed. (Fabricius, Bibl. Gi\ xi. p. 126, &c.; Cave, Hist. Lit. i. Append, p. 63, ed. London.) [L. S.]
ARIABIGNES (JApia€iyvr]s), the son of Da-roius, and one of the commanders of the fleet of his brother Xerxes, fell in the battle of Salamis, b. c. 480. (Herod, vii. 97, viii. 89.) Plutarch calls him (Them. c. 14) Ariamenes, and speaks of him as a brave man and the justest of the brothers of Xerxes. The same writer relates (de Fratern. Am. p. 448 ; comp. Apoplith. p. 173), that this Ariamenes (called by Justin, ii. 10, Artemenes) laid claim to the throne on the deatli of Dareius, as the eldest of his sons, but was opposed by Xerxes, who maintained that he had a right to the crown as the eldest of the sons born after Dareius had become king. The Persians appointed Artabanus to decide the dispute; and upon his declaring in favour of Xerxes, Ariamenes immediately saluted his brother as king, and was treated by him with great respect. According to Herodotus (vii. 2), who calls the eldest son of Dareius, Artabazanes, this dispute took place in the life-time of Dareius.
ARIADNE ('Apie&i/rj), a daughter of Minos and Pasiphae or Greta. (Apollod. iii. 1. § 2.) When Theseus was sent by his father to convey the tribute of the Athenians to Minotaurus, Ariadne fell in love with him, and gave him the string by means of which he found his way out of the Labyrinth, and which she herself had received from Hephaestus. Theseus in return promised to marry her (Plut. Thes. 19; Hygin. Fab. 42; Didyra. ad Odyss. xi. 320), and she accordingly left Crete with him ; but when they arrived in the island of Dia (Naxos), she was killed there by Artemis. (Horn. Od. xi. 324.) The words added in the Odyssey, Aiovvaov uapTvpiyo-Lv, are difficult to understand, unless we interpret them with Pherecydes by " on the denunciation of Dionysus," because he was indignant at the profanation of his grotto by the love of Theseus and Ariadne. In this case Ariadne was probably killed by Artemis at the moment she gave birth to her twin children, for she is said to have had two sons by Theseus, Oenopion and Staphylus. The more common tradition, however, was, that Theseus left Ariadne in Naxos alive ; but here the statements again differ, for some relate that he was forced by Dioii3rsus to leave her (Diod. iv. 61, v. 51; Paus. i. 20. § 2, ix. 40. § 2, x. 29. § 2), and that in his grief he forgot to take down the black sail, which occasioned the death of his father. According to others, Theseus faithlessly forsook her in the island, and different motives are given for this act of faithlessness.
(Plut. Thes. 20; Ov. Met. viii. 175, Heroid. 10; Hygin. Fab. 43.) According to this tradition, Ariadne put an end to her own life in despair, or was saved by Dionysus, who in amazement at her beauty made her his wife, raised her among the immortals, and placed the crown which he gave her at his marriage with her, among the stars. (Hesiod. Theog. 949 ; Ov. Met. I. c.; Hygin. Poet. Astr. ii. 5.) The Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius (iii. 996) makes Ariadne become by Dionysus the mother of Oenopion, Thoas, Staphylus, Latromis, Euanthes, and Tauropolis. There are several cir cumstances in the story of Ariadne which offered the , happiest subjects for works of art, and some of the finest ancient works, on gems as well as paintings, are still extant, of which Ariadne is the subject. (Lippert, Dadyliotli. ii. 51, i. 383, 384 ; Mallei, Gem. Ant. iii. 33 ; Pitture d^Ercolano^ ii. tab. 14 ; Bellori, A dm. Rom. Antiq. Vest. tab. 48; Bottiger, Arckaeol. Mus. part i.) [L. S.I
ARIAETHUS ('Ap£cu0os), of Tegea, the author of a work on the early history of Arcadia. (Hygin. Pott. Astr. ii. 1; Dionys. i. 49, where sApicu6><j> is the right reading.)
ARIAEUS ('AptaTos), or ARIDAE'US (*Api- 5a?os), the friend and lieutenant of Cyrus, com manded the barbarians in that prince's army at the battle of Cunaxa, B. c. 401. (Xen. A.nab. i. 8. § 5; Diod. xiv. 22; comp. Plut. Artax. c. 11.) After the death of Cyrus, the Cyrean Greeks offered to place Ariaeus on the Persian throne; but he declined making the attempt, on the ground that there were many Persians superior to himself, who would never tolerate him as king. (Anab. ii. 1. § 4, 2. § 1.) He exchanged oaths of fidelity, however with the Greeks, and, at the commence ment of their retreat, marched in company with them; but soon afterwards he purchased his par don from Artaxerxes by deserting them, and aid ing (possibly through the help of his friend Men on) the treachery of Tissaphernes, whereby the princi pal Greek generals fell into the hands of the Per sians. (Anab. ii. 2. § 8, &c., 4. §§ 1, 2, 9, 5. §§ 28, 38, &c. ; comp. Plut. Artax. c. 18.) It was perhaps this same Ariaeus who was em ployed by Tithraustes to put Tissaphernes to death in accordance with the king's order, b. c. 396. (Polyaen. viii. 16; Diod. xiv. 80; Wess. and Palm. ad loo.; comp. Xen. Hell. iii. 1. § 7.) In the ensuing year, b. c. 395, we again hear of Ariaeus as having revolted from Artaxerxes, and receiving Spithridates and the Paphlagonians after their desertion of the Spartan service. (Xen. Hell. iv. 1. § 27; Plut. Ages.c. 11.) [E. E.]
ARIAMNES. [abgarus, No. ].]
ARIANTAS ('Apiwrds), a king of the Scythians, who, in order to learn the population of his people, commanded every Scythian to bring him an arrow-head. With these arrow-heads he made a brazen or copper vessel, which was set up in a place called Exampaeus, between the rivers Borys-thenes and Hypanis. (Herod, iv. 81.)