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295

Niceros, son.

ARISTEIDES.

.1826, 8vo.), and by Dindorf (vol. iii. of his edition of Aristeides), and which contain a great many things of importance for mythology, history, and antiquities. They also contain numerous fragments of works now lost. The greater part of these Scholia are probably compilations from the com­mentaries of Arethas, Metrophanes, and other grammarians. Respecting the life of Aristeides, compare J. Masson, Collectanea Historica Aristidis aevum et vitam spectantia, ordine chronologico digesta, in the edition of Jebb, and reprinted in that of Dindorf. The first edition of the orations of Aristeides (53 in number) is that of Florence, 1517, fol. In 1566 W. Canter published at Basel a Latin translation, in which many passages were skilfully corrected. This translation, together with the Greek text, was re-edited by P. Stephens, 1604, in 3 vols. 8vo. A better edition, with some of the Greek Scholia, is that of Samuel Jebb, Ox­ford, 1722, 2 vols. 4to. Many corrections of the text of this edition are contained in Reiske's Animadversiones in Auct. Graec. vol. iii. JVIorelli published in 1761 the oration irpbs A.wrlvir]v uTrep dreAeias, which he had discovered in a Venetian MS. It was afterwards edited again by F. A. Wolf, in his edition of Demosthenes1 oration against Leptines (Halle, 1789), and by Grauert in his Declamationes Leptineae. (Bonn, 1827, 8vo.) This edition of Grauert contains also an oration TTpos Ayp-oaQevr) Tvepl dreAetas, which had been discovered by A. Mai, and published in his Nova Collect. Script. Vet. vol. i. p. 3. A complete edi­tion of all the works of Aristeides, which gives a correct text and all the Scholia, was published by W. Dindorf, Leipzig, 1829, 3 vols. 8vo. [L. S.] ARISTEIDES, artists. 1. Of Thebes, was one of the most celebrated Greek painters. His father was Aristodemus, his teachers were Euxemdas and his brother Nicomaclms. (Plin. xxxv. 36. §§ 7,22.) He was a somewhat older contemporary of Apelles (Plin. xxxv. 36. § 19), and flourished about 360-330 b. c. The point in which he most excelled is thus described by Pliny (I.e.) : "Is omnium primus animum pinxit et sensus hominmn expressit, quae vocant Graeci ydy, item perturbationes," that is, he depicted the feelings, expressions, and passions which may be observed in common life. One of his finest pictures was that of a babe approaching the breast of its mother, who was mortally wound­ed, and whose fear could be plainly seen lest the child should suck blood instead of milk. (Anthol. Graec. ii. p. 251, Jacobs.) Fuseli (Led. 1) has shewn how admirably in this picture the artist drew the line between pity and disgust. Alexander admired the picture so much, that he removed it to Pella. Another of his pictures was a suppliant, whose voice you seemed almost to hear. Several other pictures of his are mentioned by Pliny (Lc.)y and among them an Iris (ib. 40. § 41), which, though unfinished, excited the greatest admiration. As examples of the high price set upon his works., Pliny (ib. 36. § 19) tells us, that he painted a pic­ture for Mnason, tyrant of Elatea, representing a battle with the Persians, and containing a hundred figures, for each of which Aristeides received ten minae ; and that long after his death, Attains, king of Pergamus, gave a hundred talents for one of his pictures. (Ib, and vii. 39.) In another passage (xxxv. 8) Pliny tells us, that when Mummius was selling the spoils of Greece, Attalus bought a pic­ture of Bacchus by Aristeides for 600,000 sesterces.

ARISTEIDES.

but that Mummius, having thus discovered the value of the picture, refused to sell it to Attalus, and took it to Rome, where it was placed in the temple of Ceres, and was the first foreign painting which was exposed to public view at Rome. The commentators are in doubt whether these two pas­sages refer to the same picture. (See also Strab. viii. p. 381.) Aristeides was celebrated for his pictures of courtezans, and hence he was called "tropvoypdtyos. (Athen. xiii. p. 567, b.) He was somewhat harsh in his colouring. (Plin. xxxv. 36. § 19.) According to some authorities, the inven­tion of encaustic painting in wax (Diet, of Ant. s.v. Painting, pp. 685, 686) was ascribed to Aristeides, and its perfection to Praxiteles ; but Pliny ob­serves, that there were extant encaustic pictures of Polygnotus, Nicanor, and Arcesilaus. (xxxv. 39.)

Aristeides left two sons, Nicerus and Ariston, to whom he taught his art. [ariston ; nicerus.]

Another Aristeides is mentioned as his disciple. (Plin. xxxv. 36. § 23.) The words of Pliny, which are at first sight somewhat obscure, are rightly ex­plained in the following table by Sillig. (Catal. Art. s. v, Antorides.)

Aristeides of Thebes.

Ariston, son.

Aristeides, disciple.

Antorides and Euphranor, disciples.

2. A sculptor, who was celebrated for his statues of four-horsed and two-horsed chariots. Since he was the disciple of Polycletus, he must have flourished about 388 b. c. (Plin. xxxiv. 19. § 12.) Perhaps he was the same person as the Aristeides who made some improvements in the goals of the Olym­ pic stadium. (Pans. vi. 20. § 7; Bb'ckh, Corp. In- scrip, i. p. 39.) [P. S.]

ARISTEIDES, of athens, one of the earliest Christian apologetic writers, was at first a philoso­pher, and continued such after he became a Chris­tian. He is described by Jerome as a most elo­quent man. His apology for Christianity, which he presented to the Emperor Hadrian about 123 or 126 a. d., was imbued with the principles of the Greek philosophy. It is said that the apology of Justin, who was also a philosopher, was, to a great extent, an imitation of that of Aristeides. The work of Aristeides is entirely lost. (Euseb. Hist. Eccles. iv. 3, Chron. Armen.; Hieron. de Vir» Mast. 20; Epist. adMaqn. Orat. 84, p. 327.) [P. S.]

ARISTEIDES, the author of a work entitled milesiaca (MtA^fna/ca or Mi\7)(riaKol Acfyoi), which .was probably a romance, having Miletus for its scene. It was written in prose, and was of a licentious character. It extended to six books at the least. (Harpocrat. s. v. Sep/u^frr^.) It was translated into Latin by L. Cornelius Sisenna, a contemporary of Sulla, and it seems to have be­come popular with the Romans. (Plut. Crass. 32; Ovid. Trist. ii. 413, 414, 443, 444; Lucian, Amor. 1.) Aristeides is reckoned as the inventor of the Greek romance, and the title of his work is supposed to have given rise to the term Milesian^ as applied to works of fiction. Some writers think that his work was imitated by Appuleius in his Metamorphoses, and by Lucian in his Lucius*

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