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ARISTOTELES.

piler, according to others by Philoponus, edited by J. Nunnesius, together with an old Latin translation of the same, with some additions (Vetus translatio) ; 4. The short Greek biography, by an anonymous writer, published by Menage (Anonynras Menagii in Diog. Laert. v. 35, vol. ii. p. 201, ed. Meibom.), with which the article in Suidas coincides ; 5. Hes3rchius Milesius. These ancient biographies will be found all together in the first vol. of Buhle's edition of Aristotle. Among the more modern biographies, we need mention only the works of Guarinus of Verona (a. d. 1460, Vita Aristotelis, appended to his translation of Plutarch's biographies) ; Patritius (Discussiones Peripateticae, Basil. 1581), a passionate opponent of Aristotle and his philosophy ; Nunnesius (in his commentary on Ammonius, Vita Aristotelis,' Lugd. 1621) ; Andreas Schott (Vitae comparatae Aristotelis et Demosthenis, Augustae Vindelic. 1603, 4to) ; Buhle, in the first part of his edition of Aristotle, and in Ersch andGruber's Encyclop'ddie, v. p. 273, &c.; Blakesley's Life of Aristotle ; and the work entitled Aristotelia by the writer of this article.* [A. S.]

ARISTOTELES ('ApioroT^s). 1. Of Sicily, a rhetorician who wrote against the Panegyricus of Isocrates. (Diog. Laert. v. 35.) Some modern critics attribute to him, on very insufficient grounds, the T6%fcof ffway^yn, which is printed among the works of Aristotle.

2. Of Athens, an orator and statesman, under whose name some forensic orations were known in the time of Diogenes Laertius (v. 35), which were distinguished for their elegance.

3. Of Gyrene, is mentioned by Diogenes Laertius (v. 35) as the author of a work Ilepl

4. Of Argos, a megaric or dialectic philosopher. (Plut. Arab. 3, 44; Diog. Laert. ii. 113.) He belonged to the party at Argos which was hostile to Cleomenes of Sparta, and after Cleomenes had taken possession of the town, Aristoteles con­trived to get it again into the hands of the Achaeans. (Polyb. ii. 53; Plut. Gleam. 20.)

5. The author of a work Hcpl nA.€Oj>a0"jUou, which is completely lost. (Diog. Laert. v. 35.)

6. The author of a work on. the Iliad, which is likewise lost. (Diog. Laert. v. 35.)

7. There are apparently three Peripatetic philo­sophers of the name of Aristoteles. The first is mentioned as a commentator of his great namesake (Syrian. Metaphys. xii. 55); the second, a son of Erasistratus, is mentioned by S. Empiricus (adv. Math. p. 51); and the third, a Mytilenaean, was one of the most distinguished speculative philoso­phers in the time of Galen. (De Consuetud. p. 553, ed. Paris.)

8. Of Chalets in Euboea, who is mentioned as the author of a work on Euboea, (Ilept EvGoias, Harpocrat. s, vSApyovpa ; Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. i. 558.) Some critics have been inclined to think that this Aristoteles is not a distinct person, and that the work on Euboea ascribed to him is only another name for the EvSoe&v TroAireia of the great philosopher Aristotle. But there is no reason for such a supposition.

Ancient writers make mention of many more

* The above article was written in German by Prof. Stahr, expressly for this work, and has been translated into English by Mr. C. P. Mason.

ARISTOXENUS.

persons of the name of Aristoteles, respecting whom no particulars are known. Diogenes enu­ merates eight, including the great philosopher, and Jonsius (de Script. Histor. Phil. i. 12) no less than thirty-two persons of this name. [L. S.]

ARISTOTIMUS ('Apio-Tor^os),became tyrant in Elis with the help of Antigonus Gonatas, and after reigning for six months in the most cruel manner, was killed by Hellanicus, Cylon, and others. (Pans. v. 5. § 1; Plut. de Mulier. Virt, p. 251, &c.)

ARISTOXENUS fApwr^ews), a philosopher of the Peripatetic school. The date of his birth is not known; but from the account of Suidas, and from incidental notices in other writers, we learn that he was born at Tarentum, and was the son of a learned musician named Spintharus (otherwise Mnesias). (Aelian, //. A. ii. 11.) He learnt music from his father, and having been afterwards instruct­ed by Lamprus of Erythrae and Xenophilus the Pythagorean, finally became a disciple of Aristotle (Gell.iv. 11; Cic. Tuse. Disp. i. 18), whom he appears to have rivalled in the variety of his studies, though probably not in the success with which he prose­cuted them. According to Suidas, he produced works to the number of 453 upon music, philosophy, history, in short, every department of literature. He gained so much credit as a scholar of Aristotle, that it was expected, at least by himself, that he would be chosen to succeed him; and his disgust at the appointment of Theophrastus caused him afterwards to slander the character of his great master. This story is, however, contradicted by Aristocles (ap. Euseb.Praep. Evang. xv. 2), who as­serts that he never mentioned Aristotle but with the greatest respect. We know nothing of his philo­sophical opinions, except that he held the soul to be a harmony of the body (Cic. Tusc.Disp. i. 10,18; Lact. Instit. vii. 13, de Opif. Dei, c. 16), a doctrine which had been already discussed by Plato (in the Phaedo) and combated by Aristotle. (De An. i. 4.) It is only in his character as a musician that Aristoxenus appears to have deserved and acquired a reputation for real excellence; and no consider­able remains of his works have come down to us except three books of dp/jLoviKa aT<nxe?a, or rather, as their contents seem to shew, fragments of two or three separate musical treatises. (See Burney, Hist. of Music., vol. i. p. 442.) They contain less actual information on the theory of Greek music than the later treatises ascribed to Euclid, Aristeides Quin-tilianus, and others; but they are interesting from their antiquity, and valuable for their criticisms on the music of the times to which they belong. Aristoxenus, at least if we may trust his own ac­count, was the first to attempt a complete and sys­tematic exposition of the subject; and he aimed at introducing not only a more scientific knowledge, but also a more refined and intellectual taste than that which prevailed among his contemporaries, whom he accuses of cultivating only that kind of music which was capable of sweetness. (Aristox. p. 23, ed. Meibom.) He became the founder of a sect or school of musicians, called, after him, Aristoxeneans, who were opposed to the Pytha­goreans on the question whether reason or sense should furnish the principles of musical science and the criterion of the truth of its proposi­tions. Pythagoras had discovered the connexion between musical intervals and numerical ratios; and it had been found that the principal concords

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