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retreat of the Romans and the death of Julian, who died from a wound on the 26th of the same month. Jovian, who was chosen emperor in the camp, saved the Roman army by a treaty in July, by which he renounced his sovereignty over the tributary kingdoms of Armenia and Iberia. Arsaces, in the hope of receiving the reward of his treachery, ventured into the camp of Sapor. He was at first received with honour, but in the midst of an entertainment was seized by order of Sapor and confined in the tower of Oblivion at Ecbatana, where he was loaded with silver chains. He died there by the hand of a faithful servant, whom he implored to release him with, his sword from the humiliation of his captivity. Arsaces reigned tyrannically, and had a strong party against him, especially among the nobles, (Amm. Marc. xx. 11, xxi. 6, xxiii. 2, 3, xxv. 7, xxvii. 12 ; Procop. de Bell. Pers. i. 5.)

para, the son of Arsaces III. and Olympias. (Tillemont, Histoire des Empereurs.) No sooner had Sapor seized Arsaces, than he put one Aspa-cures on the throne of Armenia. Para, the heir and successor of Arsaces, was reduced to the pos­session of one fortress, Artogerassa (perhaps Arta-gera, or Ardis, towards the sources of the Tigris, above Diyarbekr or Amida), where he was be­sieged with his mother Olympias by the superior forces of Sapor. The fortress surrendered after a gallant defence, Olympias fell into the hands of the conqueror, but Para escaped to Neocaesareia, and implored the aid of the emperor Valens. The emperor ordered him to be well treated, and pro­mised to assist him. Terentius, a Roman general, led the fugitive king back into Armenia with a sufficient force, and Para was acknowledged as king ; and though attacked by Sapor, he continued to reign with the assistance of the Romans. Para was a tyrant. Misled by the intrigues of Sapor, he killed Cylaces and Artabanus, two of his chief ministers. As Valens was dissatisfied with the conduct of the Armenian king, Terentius persuaded him to go to Cilicia, pretending that the emperor wished to have an interview with him. When Para arrived at Tarsus, he was treated with due respect, but so closely watched as to be little better than a prisoner. He escaped with a body of light cavalry, and swimming across the Euphrates, ar­rived safely in Armenia in spite of an ardent pur­suit. He continued to show himself a friend of the Romans, but Valens distrusted him and re­solved upon his death. Trajanus, a Roman dux, or general, executed the emperor's secret order. He invited Para to a banquet, and when the guests were half intoxicated, a band of Roman soldiers rushed in, and Para and his attendents were slain after a brave resistance, A. d. 374 or 377. The Armenian name of Para is Bab. (Amm. Marc, xxvii. 12. xxx. 1.)

arsaces IV. (V. of Vaillant), the son of Para or Bab. According to Vaillant, he was the ne­phew of Para, being the son of one Arsaces (IV. of Vaillant), who was the brother of Para ; this opinion has been adopted by distinguished histo­rians, but it seems untenable. Arsaces IV. reigned a short time together with his brother Valarsaces or Wagharshag, who died soon. In a war against an usurper, Waraztad, the son of Anob, who was the brother of Arsaces III., Arsaces IV. showed such a want of character and energy that he owed his success merely to the bad conduct of the


usurper, who was at first supported by the emperor Theodosius the Great. The weakness of Arsaces being manifest, Theodosius and Sapor III. formed and carried into execution the plan of dividing Armenia. Arsaces was allowed to reign as a vassal king of Constantinople in the western and smaller part of Armenia, while the larger and eastern part became the share of Sapor, who gave it to Chosroes or Khosrew, a noble belonging to the house of the Arsacidae, of which there were still some branches living in Persia. According to St. Martin this happened in 387. Procopius mentions one Tigranes, brother of Arsaces, who reigned over eastern Armenia, which he ceded to Sapor. The whole history of the division of Ar­menia is very obscure, and the chief sources, Pro­copius and Moses Chorenensis are in manifest con­tradiction. Arsaces IV. died in 389, and his dominions were conferred by the emperor upon his general, Casavon, who was descended from the family of the Gamsaragans, which was a branch of the Arsacidae. It seems that this general was a most able diplomatist, and that his nomination was a plot concerted between him and Theodosius to. bring all Armenia under the imperial authority; Casavon declared himself a vassal of Chosroes, and this vassal suddenly broke his allegiance towards Sapor, and submitted to Theodosius. On this Bahram IV-, the successor of Sapor, invaded Ar­menia, seized Chosroes and put Bahram Shapur (Sapor) the brother of Chosroes, on the vassal throne of (eastern) Armenia. (392.) In 414, Chosroes was re-established by Yezdegerd I., the successor of Bahrain IV., and after the death of ChosroeSj in 415, Yezdegerd's son, Shapur or Sa­por, became king. Sapor died in 419, and till 422 there was an interregnum in Armenia till Ar-dashes (Artasires) ascended the throne. (Proco­pius, de Aedif. Justin. iii. 1. 5 ; De Bell. Pers. ii. 3; Moses Choren. iii. 40, &c., 49, &c.)

artasires, the last Arsacid on the throne of Armenia, the son of Bahram Shapur, and the nephew of Chosroes. Moses Chorenensis tells us, that his real name was Ardashes. (Artases or Artaxes.) He was made king of Armenia in 422, by Bahram IV., who ordered or requested him to adopt the name of Ardashir (Artasires or Artax-erxes). As Artasires was addicted to vices of every description, the people, or rather the nobles of Armenia, wished for another king. Since the conversion of prince Gregory (afterwards St. Gre­gory), the son of Anag, the Arsacid, to the Chris­tian religion, in the time of Constantine the Great, the Armenians had gradually adopted the Chris­tian religion; and there was a law that the patri­arch should always be a member of the royal family of the Arsacidae. During the reign of Ar­tasires the office of patriarch was held by Isaac, to whom the nobles applied when they wished to choose another king; but Isaac aware that their choice would fall upon Bahram, the heathen king of Persia, refused to assist them. The nobles thereupon applied straightway to Bahrain, who in­vaded Armenia, deposed Artasires, and united his dominions to Persia, A. d. 428. From this time eastern Armenia was called Persarmenia. (Pro-cop. dq Aedif. Justin. iii. 1, 5; Moses Choren. iii. 63, &c.; Assemani, Bibliotheca Orientates, vol. iii. pars i. p. 396, &c.)

The following chronological table, which differs in some points from the preceding narrative, is taken

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