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ARTEMIS.

called \ii*vfjTis or \iuvaia. (Pans. ii. 7. § 6, iii. I 23. § 6, iv. 4. § 2, 31. § 3, viii. 53. § 5.) In the precincts of her sanctuaries there were often sacred wells, as at Corinth. (Pans. ii. 3. § 5, iii. 20. § 7.) As a nymph, Artemis also appears in connexion with river gods, as with Alpheius [alpheius], and thus it is intelligible why fish were sacred to her. (Diod. v. 3.)

3. The Taurian Artemis. The legends of this goddess are mystical, and her worship was orgiastic and connected, at least in early times, with human sacrifices. According to the Greek legend there was in Tauris a goddess, whom the Greeks for some reason identified with their own Artemis, and to whom all strangers that were thrown on the coast of Tauris, were sacrificed. (Eurip. Ipk. Tarn: 36.) Iphigeneia and Orestes brought her image from thence, and landed at Brauron in At­tica, whence the goddess derived the name of Brau-ronia. (Paus. i. 23. § 9, 33. § 1, iii. 16, in fin.) The Brauronian Artemis was worshipped at Athens and Sparta, and in the latter place the boys were scourged at her altar in such a manner that it be­came sprinkled with their blood. This cruel cere­mony was believed to have been introduced by Lycurgus, instead of the human sacrifices which had until then been offered to her. (Diet, of Ant. s. v. ~Bpavp&via and AictytcurTrycocrts.) Her name at Sparta was Orthia, with reference to the phal­lus, or because her statue stood erect. According to another tradition, Orestes and Iphigeneia con­cealed the image of the Taurian goddess in a bun­dle of brushwood, and carried it to Aricia in La-tium. [AmciNA.] Iphigeneia, who was at first to have been sacrificed to Artemis, and then be­came her priestess, was afterwards identified with the goddess (Herod, iv. 103; Paus. i. 43. § 1), who was worshipped in some parts of Greece, as at Hermione, under the name of Iphigeneia. (Paus. ii. 35. § 1.) Some traditions stated, that Artemis made Iphigeneia immortal, in the character of He­cate, the goddess of the moon. [hecate.] A kindred divinity, if not the same as the Taurian Artemis, is Artemis raupoTnfAos, whose worship was connected with bloody sacrifices, and who pro­duced madness in the minds of men, at least the chorus in the Ajax of Sophocles, describes the madness of Ajax as the work of this divinity. In the legends about the Taurian Artemis, it seems that separate local traditions of Greece are mixed up with the legends of some Asiatic divinity, whose symbol in the heaven was the moon, and on the earth the cow.

4. The Epliesian Artemis was a divinity totally distinct from the Greek goddess of the same name. She seems to have been the personification of the fructifying and all-nourishing powers of nature. It is an opinion almost universally adopted, that she was an ancient Asiatic divinity whose worship the Greeks found established in Ionia, when they settled there, and that, for some resemblance they discovered, they applied to her the name of Arte-inis. As soon as this identity of the Asiatic god­dess with the Greek Artemis was recognised, other features, also originally peculiar to the Greek Ar­temis, were transferred to her; and thus she is called a daughter of Leto, who gave birth to her in the neighbourhood of Ephesus. Her original cha­racter is sufficiently clear from the fact, that her priests were eunuchs, and that her image in the magnificent temple of Ephesus represented her

ARTEMISIA.

with many breasts (TroXvpao-Tos). The whole fi­gure of the goddess resembled a mummy : her head was surmounted with a mural crown (corona muralis\ and the lower part of her body, which ended in a point, like a pyramid upside down, was covered with figures of mystical animals. (Strab. xiv. p. 641 ; Pans. iv. 31. § 6, vii. 5. § 2., The symbol of this divinity was a bee, and her high-priest bore the name of king (eatr/iv). Her worship was said to have been established at Ephesus by the Amazons. (Pans. ii. 7. § 4, viii. 12. § 1; He-sych. and Suid. s. v. etrcrijv.)

Respecting some other divinities, or attributes of divinities, which were likewise regarded as identi­cal with Artemis in Greece, see buitomartis, dictynna, and eileithyia. The Romans iden­tified their goddess Diana with the Greek. Artemis, and at a comparatively early time they transferred to their own goddess all the peculiar features of the Greek Artemis. [DiANA.] The worship of Artemis was universal in all Greece, in Delos, Crete, Sicily, and southern Italy, but more especi­ally in Arcadia and the whole of the Peloponnesus. The sacrifices offered to the Brauronian Artemis consisted of stags and goats; in Thrace dogs were offered to Artemis. Among the animals sacred to the Greek Artemis we may mention the stag, boar, dog, and others; the fir-tree was likewise sacred to her.

It is impossible to trace the various relations in which Artemis appears to us to one common source, or to one fundamental idea : the very manner in which such a complicated mythus was formed ren­ders thft attempt futile, or, to say the least, forced. In the case of Artemis, it is evident, that new ele­ments and features were added in various places to the ancient local mythus ; the worship of one divi­nity is identified with that of another, and the legends of the two are mixed up into one, or those of the one are transferred to the other, whose le­gends then sink into oblivion.

The representations of the Greek Artemis in works of art are different accordingly as she is re­ presented either as a huntress, or as the goddess of the moon ; yet in either case she appears as a youth­ ful and vigorous divinity, as becomes the sister of Apollo. As the huntress, she is tall, nimble, and has small hips ; her forehead is high, her eyes glancing freely about, and her hair tied up behind in such a manner, that some locks float down her neck; her breast is covered, and the legs up to the knees are naked, the rest being covered by the chlamys. Her attributes are the bow, quiver, and arrows, or a spear, stags, and dogs. As the goddess of the moon, she wears a long robe which reaches down to her feet, a veil covers her head, and above her forehead rises the crescent of the moon. In her hand she often appears holding a torch. (Mitscher- lich, de Diana Sospita, Gb'ttingen, 1821 ; Miiller, Dorians, book ii. c. 9 ; Museo Pio-Clem. i. 30 ; Hirt. Mytliol. Bilderb. i. p. 37.) [L. S.]

ARTEMISIA ('Apre^o-ia). 1. A queen of Halicarnassus, Cos, Nisyros, and Calydna, who ruled over these places as a vassal of the Persian empire in the reign of Xerxes I. She was a daugh­ter of Lygdamis, and on the death of her husband, she succeeded him as queen. When Xerxes in­vaded Greece, she voluntarily joined his fleet with five beautiful ships, and in the battle of Salamis (b. c. 480) she distinguished herself by her pru­dence, courage, and perseverance, for which she

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