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not, however, contain the Epistolae, the Sermones, and the Enarrationes in Psalmos, which had been previously published by Amerbach. In 1529, the works of Augustin were again published at Basle, from the press of Frobenius. and under the editorship of Erasmus, in ten volumes folio. This edition, though by no means faultless, was a con­siderable improvement upon that of Amerbach. It was reprinted at Paris in 1531-32; at Venice, with some improvements, in 1552, and again in 1570; at Lyons in 1561-63, and again in 1571. It was also issued from the press of Frobenius at Basle, with various alterations, in 1543, in 1556, in 1569, and in 1570. In 1577 the valuable edi­tion of Augustin prepared by the learned divines of Louvain, was published at Antwerp, by Christo­pher Plantin, in ten volumes folio. It far surpasses in critical exactness all the preceding editions ; and though, on the whole, inferior to that of the Bene­dictines, it is still held in high estimation. No fewer than sixteen of the "Theologi Lovanienses" were employed in preparing it for publication. It has been very frequently reprinted : at Geneva in 1596 ; at Cologne in 1616 ; at Lyons in 1664 ; at Paris in 1586, in 1603, in 1609, in 1614, in 1626, in 1635, and in 1652. The Benedictine edition of the works of Augustin, in eleven volumes folio, was published at Paris in 1679—1700. It was severely handled by Father Simon; but its supe­riority to all the former editions of Augustin is generally acknowledged. The first volume con­tains, besides the Retractations and the Confes­sions, the greater part of the works written by Augustin before his elevation to the episcopal dig­nity. The second comprises his letters. The third and fourth include his exegetical writings, the fourth being entirely filled up with his Commen­tary on the Psalms. The fifth volume contains the sermons of Augustin. The sixth embraces his Opera Moralia. The seventh consists of the trea­tise de Civitate Dei. The eighth comprehends his principal works against the Manichaeans, and those against the Arians. The ninth comprises his con­troversial writings against the Donatists. The tenth consists of his treatises on the Pelagian con­troversy. Each of these volumes contains an ap­pendix consisting of works falsely attributed to Augustin, &c. The eleventh volume is occupied with the life of Augustin, for the preparation of which Tillemont lent the sheets of his unpublished volume upon this father. This valuable edition was reprinted at Paris, in eleven thick imperial octavo volumes, 1836—39. The edition of Le Clerc (who calls himself Joannes Phereponus) appeared (professedly at Antwerp, but in reality) at Amsterdam, in 1700—1703. It is a republica-tion of the Benedictine edition, with notes by Le Clerc, and some other supplementary matter; be­sides an additional volume containing the poem of Prosper de Ingratis, the Commentary of Pelagius on the Epistles of Paul, and some modern produc­tions referring to the life and writings of Augustin. Of the numerous editions of the separate works of Augustin the following are all that we have space to enumerate :—De Civitate Dei: editio prin-ceps, e monasterio Sublacensi, 1467, fol.; Mogun-tiae per Petr. Schoeffer, cum commentariis Thomae Valois et Nic. Triveth, 1473, fol., reprinted at Basle in 1479 and again in 1515 ; commentariis iilustratum studio et labore Jo. Lud. Vivis, Basileae, 1522, 1555, 1570, fol.; cum commentariis Leon.



Coquaei et Jo. Lud. Vivis, Paris, 1613, 1636, fol., Lips. 1825, 2 vols. 8vo. Confessiones: editio princeps, Mediolani, 1475, 4to.; Lovanii, 1563, 12mo. and again 1573, 8vo.; Antverp. 1567, 1568, 1740, 8vo.; Lugd. Batav. 1675, 12mo. apud Elze­vir. ; Paris, 1776, 12mo. (an edition highly com­mended) ; Berol. 1823, ed. A. Neander; Lips. (Tauchnitz), 1837, ed. C. H. Brader ; Oxon. (Parker), 1840, ed. E. B. Pusey. De Fide et Operibus: editio princeps, Coloniae, 4to. 3 473 \ ed. Jo. Hennichio, Francof. ad M. et Rintelii, 1652, 8vo. De Doctrina Christiana: Helmstad. 1629, 8vo. ed. Georgius Calixtus, reprinted at Helmstadt in quarto, 1655; Lips. 1769, 8vo. ed. J. C. B. Teegius, cum praef. J. F. Burscheri. De Spiritu et Litera: Lips. 1767, 1780, 8vo. ed. J. C. B. Teegius; Regimont. 1824, 8vo. cum praef. H. Olshausen. De Conjugiis Adulterinis: Jenae, 1698, 4to. cum notis Jurisconsulti celeberrimi (Joannis Schilter) quibus dogma Ecclesiae de matrimonii dissolutione illustratur.

The principal sources of information respecting the life of Augustin are his own Confessions, Re­ tractations, and Epistles, and his biography written by his pupil Possidius, bishop of Calania. Among the best modern works on this subject are those of Tillemont and the Benedictine editors already men­ tioned ; Laurentii Berti " De rebus gestis Sancti Augustini," &c. Venice, 1746, 4to.; Schrockh, "Kirchengeschichte,'' vol. xv.; Neander, " Ges- chichte der Christlichen Religion mid Kirche," vol. ii.; Bahr, " Geschichte der Romischen Literatur," Supplement, vol. ii. For the editions of the works of Augustin, see Cas. Oudin. " Commentarius de Scriptoribus Ecclesiae Antiquis," vol. i. pp. 931— 993, and C. T. G. Schbnemann's " Bibliotheca HistoivLiteraria Patrum Latinorum," vol. ii. pp. 33—363. On the Pelagian controversy, see (be­ sides Tillemont) G. J. Vossii u Historia de Contro- versiis quas Pelagius ejusque reliquiae moverunt," Opp. vol. vi.; C. W. F. Walch's "Ketzerhistorie," vol. iv. und v.; G. F. Wiggers' " Versuch einer pragmat. Darstellung des Augustinismus und Pela- gianismus," Berlin, 1821. [J. M. M.]

AUGUSTULUS, RO'MULUS, the last Ro­man emperor of the West, was the son of Orestes, who seized the government of the empire after having driven out the emperor Julius Nepos. Orestes, probably of Gothic origin, married a daughter of the comes Romulus at Petovio or Pe-tavio, in the south-western part of Pannonia; their son was called Romulus Augustus, but the Greeks altered Romulus into Moy-tuAAos, and the Romans, despising the youth of the emperor, changed Au­gustus into Augustulus. Orestes, who declined assuming the purple, had his youthful son pro­claimed emperor in a. d. 475, but still retained the real sovereignty in his own hands. As early as 476, the power of Orestes was overthrown by Odoacer, who defeated his rival at Pavia and put him to death ; Paulus, the brother of Orestes, was slain at Ravenna. Romulus Augustulus was allow­ed to live on account of1 his youth, beauty, and innocence, but was exiled by the victor to the villa of Lucullus, on the promontory of Misenum in Campania, which was then a fortified castle. There he lived upon a yearly allowance of six thousand pieces of gold: his ultimate fate is unknown.

The series of Roman emperors who had govern­ed the state from the battle of Actiuni, b. c. 31;. during a period of five hundred and seven year.s,

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