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BARBATUS.

ii. 632.) Macrobius (Sat. iii. 8) also mentions a statue of Venus in Cyprus, representing the god­dess with a beard, in female attire, but resembling in her whole figure that of a man. (Comp. Suidas, Hesych. s. v. 3A<£>po5rros.) The

s. v.

idea of Venus thus being a mixture of the male and female nature, seems to belong to a very late period of antiquity. (Voss, Myiliol. Briefe, ii. p. 282, &c.) [L. S.]

BARBATIO, commander of the household troops under the Caesar Gallus, arrested his mas­ter, by command of Constantius, at Petovium in Noricum, and thence, after stripping him of the ensigns of his dignitj^, conducted him to Pola in Istria, A. T>. 354. In return for his services, he was promoted, upon the death of Silvanus, to the rank of general of the infantry (peditum mayister}, and was sent with an army of 25,000 or 30,000 men to co­operate with Julian in the campaign against the Alemanni in 356 ; but he treacherously deserted him, either through envy of Julian, or in accordance with the secret instructions of the emperor. In 358, he defeated the Juthungi, who had invaded Rhaetia ; and, in the following year, he was be­headed by command of Constantius, inconsequence of an imprudent letter which his wife had written him, and which the emperor thought indicated treasonable designs on his part. (Amm. Marc. xiv. 11, xvi. 11, xvii. 67 xviii. 3; Liban. Orat. x. p. 273.)

M. BARBA'TIUS, a friend of J. Caesar, and afterwards quaestor of Antony in b. c. 40. (Cic. Phil. xiii. 2 ; Appian, B. C. v. 31.) His name occurs on a coin of Antony : the obverse of which is M. ant. imp. avg. IIIviR. R. P. C., M. bar-bat. Q. P., where there can be little doubt that M. barb at. signifies M. Barbatitis, and not Bar-batus, as Ursinus and others have conjectured, who make it a surname of the Valeria gens. The letters Q. P. probably signify Quaestor Propractore. (Comp. Eckhel, v. p. 334.)

This M. Barbatius appears to be the same as the Barbarius Philippus mentioned by Ulpian (Dig. 1. tit. 14. s. 3), where Barbarius is only a false read­ing for Barbarius, and also the same as the Bar-bins Philippicus, spoken of by Suidas. (s. v.} We learn from Ulpian and Suidas that M. Barbatius was a runaway slave, who ingratiated himself into the favour of Antony, and through his in­fluence obtained the praetorship under the trium­virs. While discharging the duties of his office in the forum he was recognized, we are told, by his old master, but privately purchased his freedom by a large sum of money. (Comp. Garaton. ad Cic. Phil. xiii. 2.)

BARBATUS, the name of a family of the Horatia gens. Barbatus was also a surname of P. Cornelius Scipio, consul in b. c. 328 [Scipio], of the Quinctii Capitolini [capitolinus], and of M. Valerius Messalla, consul in b. c. 12. [mbssalla.]

1. M. horatius M. f. M. n. barbatus, was one of the most violent opponents of the second decemvirs, when they resolved to continue their power beyond their year of office. In the tumult which followed the death of Virginia, Valerius Poplicola and Horatius Barbatus put themselves at the head of the popular movement ; and when the plebeians seceded to the Sacred Hill, Valerius and Horatius were sent to them, by the senate, as the only acceptable deputies, to negotiate the terms of peace. The right of appeal and the tribunes

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BARBULA.

were restored to the plebs, and a full indemnity granted to all engaged in the secession. The decemvirate was also abolished, and the two friends of the plebs, Valerius and Horatius, were elected consuls, b. c. 449. The liberties of the pleba were still further confirmed in their consulship by the passing of the celebrated Valeriae Horaiiae Leges. [poplicola.] Horatius gained a great victory over the Sabines, whicli inspired them with such dread of Rome, that they did not take up arms again for the next hundred and fifty years. The senate out of spite refused Horatius a triumph, but he celebrated one without their consent, by command of the populus. (Liv. iii. 39, &c., 49, 50, 53, 55, 61—63 ; Dionys. xi. 5, 22, 38, 45, 48 5 Cic. de Rep. ii. 31; Diod. xii. 26 ; Zonar. vii. 18.)

2. L. horatius barbatus, consular tribune, b. c. 425. (Liv. iv. 35.)

BARBILLUS (Bap§iXXos), an astrologer at Rome in the reign of Vespasian. (Dion Cass. Ixvi. 9.) He was retained and consulted by the em­ peror, though all of his profession were forbidden the city. He obtained the establishment of the games at Ephesus, which received their name from him, and are mentioned in the Arundelian Mar­ bles, p. 71, and discussed in a note in Heimar's edition of Dion Cass. vol. ii. p. 1084. [A. G.]

BARBUCALLUS, JOANNES ('I«<fc/wjs Bap-f?ou/«{/\Aos), the author of eleven epigrams in the Greek Anthology. From internal evidence his date is fixed by Jacobs about A. d. 551. The Scholiast derives his name from Barbucale, a city of Spain within the Ebro mentioned by Polybius and Stephanus. The name of the city as actually given by Polybius (iii. 14), Stephanus Byzantinus (s. r.), and Livy (xxi. 5), is Arbucale (3Ap€ovKa\rj) or Arbocala, probably the modern Albucella. [P. S.]

BARBULA, the name of a family of the patri­cian Aemilia gens.

1. Q. aemilius Q. f. L. n. barbula, consul in b.c. 317, in which year a treaty was made with the Apulian Teates, Nerulum taken by Barbula, and Apulia entirely subdued. (Liv. ix. 20, 21 ; Diod. xix. 17.) Barbula was consul again in 311, and had the conduct of the war against the Etrus­cans, with whom he fought an indecisive battle according to Livy. (ix. 30—32 j Diod. xx. 3.) The Fasti, however, assign him a triumph over the Etruscans, but this Niebuhr (Rom. Hist. iii. p. 278) thinks to have been an invention of the family, more especially as the next campaign against the Etruscans was not opened as if the Ro­mans had been previously conquerors.

2. L. aemilius Q. f. Q. n. barbula, son of No. 1, was consul in b. c. 281. The Tarentines had rejected with the vilest insult the terms of peace which had been offered by Postumius, the Roman ambassador; .but as the republic had both the Etruscans and Samnites to contend with, it was unwilling to come to a rupture with the Ta-rentines, and accordingly sent the consul Barbula towards Taren turn with instructions to offer the same terms of peace as Postumius had, but if they were again rejected to make war against the city. The Tarentines, however, adhered to their former resolution ; but as .they were unable to defend themselves against the Romans, they invited Pyrrhus to their assistance. As soon as Barbula became acquainted with their determination, he prosecuted the war with the utmost vigour, beat

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