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the persecution under Marcus Antoninus. We learn from Ephrem the Syrian that Bardesanes composed, in his native tongue, no fewer than one hundred and fifty Psalms elegantly versified. On this subject see Ilahn, Bardesanes Gnosticus Syrorum primus Hymnologus, Lips. 1819. Bardesanes had^a son, Harmonius (incorrectly called Hammonius by Lumper), whom Sozomen styles a man of learning, and specially skilled in music. (Hist. Eccles. iii. 16 ; comp. Theodoret, Hist. Eccles. iv. 29.) He was devoted to his father's opinions, and, by adapting popular melodies to the words in which they were conveyed, he did harm to the cause of orthodoxy. To counteract this mischief, Ephrem set new and evangelical words to the tunes of Plarmo-•nius, which, in this improved adaptation, long continued in vogue.
In the writings of Porphyry (de Alstinentia, iv. 17, and also in his fragment de Styge), a Barde sanes Babylonius is mentioned, whom Vossius (de Hist. Grace, iv. 17). Strunz (Hist. Bar- desanis et Bardesanistaruni), Heeren (Stobaei Eclog. P. i.), and Harles (Fabric. Bill. Grace, iv. p. 247) represent as altogether a different person from Bardesanes of Edessa. Dodwell (Diss. ad Ire- naeum, iv. 35) identifies the Babylonian Bardesanes with the Syrian Gnostic, and maintains that he flourished, not under Marcus Antoninus, but Ela- gabalus ; and in this last position Grabe concurs. (Spicil. i. 317.) Lardner conceives that the his torical and chronological difficulties may be satis factorily adjusted by the hypothesis that the same individual who had acquired an early reputation in the reign of Marcus Aurelius was still living, in the full blaze of his celebrity, under Elagabalus. His reasoning on the question is very sound ; yet an attentive consideration of the ancient authorities disposes us to agree with Vossius and Heeren. The Bardesanes mentioned by Porphyry wrote concern ing the Indian Gymnosophists. (Euseb./Zz's^. Eccles. iv. 30 ; Jerome, de Viris Illustr. c. 33 ; Sozomen, Theodoret, and the Edessene Chronicle. The chief modern authorities are the works of Cave, Tillemont, and Remi Ceillier ; Beausobre, His- tuire de Manichie, fyc., vol. ii. p. 128 ; Ittig, Append. Diss. de HaeresiarcJi. sect. ii. 6. § 85 ; Buddeus, Diss. de Jiaeres. Valentin. §xviii.; Lardner, Credibility of the Gospel History', part ii. ch. 28, § 12 ; Burton's Lectures upon Ecclesiastical His tory, Lect. xx. vol. ii. pp. 182—185 ; Neander, Gesch. der Christ. Religion, fyc. I. i. p. 112, ii. pp. 532, 647, 743; and Grabe, Mosheim, Walch, and Hahn, II. c.) [J. M..M.]
BARDYLIS or BARDYLLIS (Bdp$v\is, BapSuAAfs), the Illyrian chieftain, is said to have been originally a collier, — next, the leader of a band of freebooters, in which capacity he was famous for his equity in the distribution of plunder,—and ultimately to have raised himself to the supreme power in Illyria. (Wesseling, ad Diod. xvi. 4, and the authorities there referred to.) He supported Argaeus against Amyntas II. in his struggle for the throne of Macedonia [see p. 154, b.] ; and from Diodorus (xvi. 2) it appears that Amyntas, after his restoration to his kingdom, was obliged to purchase peace of Bardylis by tribute, and to deliver up as a hostage his youngest son, Philip, who, according to this account (which seems far from the truth), was committed by the Illyrians to the custody of the Thebans. (Diod. xvi. 2 ; comp. Wesseling, ad loc.; Diod. xv. 67 ;
Plut. Pelop. 26 ; Just. vii. 5.) The incursions of Bardylis into Macedonia we find continued in the reign of Perdiccas III., who fell in a battle against him in b. c. 360. (Diod. xvi. 2.) When Philip, in the ensuing year, was preparing to invade Illyria, Bardylis, who was now 90 years old, having proposed terms of peace which Philip re jected, led forth his troops to meet the enemy, and was defeated and probably slain in the battle which ensued. Plutarch mentions a daughter of his, called Bircenna, who was married to Pyrrhus of Epeirus. (Diod. xvi. 4 ; Just. vii. 6 ; Lucian, Macrob. 10 ,- Plut. Pyrr. 9.) [E. E.]
BAREA SORANUS, must not be confounded with Q. Marcius Barea, who was consul suifectus in a. d. 26. The gentile name of Barea Soranus seems to have been Servilius, as Servilia was the name of his daughter. Soranus was consul suftectus in a. d. 52 under Claudius, and afterwards proconsul of Asia. By his justice and zeal in the administration of the province he incurred the hatred of Nero, and was accordingly accused by 0storms Sabinus, a Roman knight, in a. d. 66\ The charges brought against him were his intimacy with Rubellius Plautus [plautus], and the design of gaining over the province of Asia for the purpose of a revolution. His daughter Servilia was also accused for having given money to the Magi, whom she had consulted respecting her father's danger: she was under twenty years of age, and was the wife of Annius Pollio, who had been banished by Nero. Both Soranus and his daughter were condemned to death, and were allowed to choose the mode of their execution. The chief witness against father and daughter was P. Egnatius Celer, a Stoic philosopher, formerly a client and also the teacher of Soranus ; to whose act of villany Juvenal alludes (iii. 116),
" Stoicus occidit Baream, delator amicum,
Egnatius received great rewards from Nero, but was afterwards accused by Musonius Rums under Vespasian, and condemned to death. (Tac. Ann. xii. 53, xvi. 21, 23, 30—33, Hist. iv. 10, 40 ; Dion Cass. Ixii. 26 ; Schol. ad Juv. i. 33, vi. 551.)
BARNABAS (BapaSas), one of the early inspired teachers of Christianity, was originally named Joseph, and received the apellation Barnabas from the apostles. To the few details in his life supplied by the New Testament various additions have been made ; none of which are certainly true, while many of them are evidently false. Clemens Alex-andrinus, Eusebius, and others, affirm, that Barnabas was one of the seventy disciples sent forth by our Lord himself to preach the gospel. Baronius and some others have maintained, that Barnabas not only preached the gospel in Italy, but founded the church in Milan, of which they say he was the first bishop. That this opinion rests on no sufl>