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BASSUS.

were discovered by Sextus, who, however, forgave him on his alleging that he Avanted to collect troops in order to assist Mithridates of Pergamus. Soon afterwards, however, Bassus spread a report that Caesar had been defeated and killed in Africa, and that he himself had been appointed governor of Syria. He forthwith seized upon Tyre, and marched against Sextus ; but being defeated by the latter, he corrupted the soldiers of his opponent, who was accordingly put to death by his own troops. On the death of Sextus, his whole army went over to Bassus, with the exception of some troops which were wintering in Apameia and which fled to Cilicia. Bassus followed them, but was unable to gain them over to his side. On his return he took the title of praetor, b. c. 46, and settled down in the strongly fortified town of Apameia, where he maintained himself for three years. He was first besieged by C. Antistius Vetus, who was, however, compelled to retire with loss, as the Arabian Al-chaudonius and the Parthians came to the assist­ance of Bassus. It was one of the charges brought against Cicero's client, Deitoraus, that he had intended to send forces to Bassus. After the retreat of Antistius, Statius Murcus was sent against Bassus with three legions, but he too re­ceived a repulse, and was obliged to call to his assistance Marcius Crispus, the governor of Bi-thynia, who brought three legions more. With these six legions Murcus and Crispus kept Bassus besieged in Apameia till the arrival of Cassius in

Syria in the year after Caesar's death, b. c. 43. The troops of Bassus, as well as those of Murcus and Crispus, immediately went over to Cassius, and Bassus, who was unwilling to join Cassius, was dismissed uninjured. (Dion Cass. xlvii. 26 —28 ; Appian, B. C. iii. 77, 78, iv. 58, 59; Cic. pro Deit. 8, 9, ad Alt. xiv. 9, xv. 13, ad Fam. xi. 1, Philip, xi. 13, ad Fam. xii. 11, 12 ; Liv. Epit. 114, 121; Veil. Pat. ii. 69 ; Strab. xvi. p. 752; Joseph. Ant. xiv. 11, B. J. i. 10. § 10.)

Appian gives (/. c.) a different account of the origin of the revolt in Syria under Bassus. Ac­cording to Appian's statement, Bassus was ap­pointed by Caesar commander of the legion under the governor Sex. Julius. But as Sextus gave himself up to pleasure and carried the legion about with him everywhere, Bassus represented to him the impropriety of his conduct, but his reproofs were received with contempt; and shortly after­wards Sextus ordered him to be dragged into his presence, because he did not immediately come when he was ordered. Hereupon the soldiers rose against Sextus, who was killed in the tumult. Fearing the anger of Caesar, the soldiers resolved to rebel, and compelled Bassus to join them.

BASSUS, CAESIUS. 1. A Roman lyric poet, who flourished about the middle of the first century. Quintilian (x. 1. § 95) observes, "At Lyricorum idem Horatius fere solus legi dignus. ... Si quem-dam adjicere velis, is erit Caesius Bassus, quern nuper vidimus t sed eum longe praecedunt ingenia viventium." Two lines only of his compositions have been preserved, one of these, a dactylic hexa­meter from the second book of his Lyrics, is to be found in Priscian (x. p. 897, ed. Putsch); the other is quoted by Diomedes (iii. p. 513, ed. Putsch.) as an example of Molossian verse. The sixth satire of Persius is evidently addressed to this Bassus; and the old scholiast informs us, that he was des­troyed along with his villa in a. d, 79 by the erup-.

BASSUS.

tion of Vesuvius which overwhelmed Herculanetini and Pompeii. He must not be confounded with

2. Caesius Bassus, a Roman Grammarian of un­certain date, the author of a short tract entitled "Ars Caesii Bassi de Metris," which is given in the " Grammaticae Latinae Auctores Antiqui" of Putschius (Hanov. 1605), pp. 2663-26/1. [W.R.] ^ BASSUS, CASSIA'NUS, surnamed Scholas-ticus, was in all probability the compiler of the Geoponica (Ywirovmd^ or work on Agriculture, which is usually ascribed to the emperor Constan-tine Porphyrogeneta. (a. d. 911—959.) Cas-sianus Bassus appears to have compiled it by the command of this emperor, who has thus obtained the honour of the work Of Bassus we know no­thing, save that he lived at Constantinople, and was born at Maratonymum, probably a place in Bithynia. (Geopon. v. 6, comp. v. 36.) The work itself, which is still extant, consists of twenty books, and is compiled from various authors, whose names are always given, and of whom the follow­ing is an alphabetical list: — sex. julius afri-canus ; anatolicus of Berytus [p. 161, b.~j j appuleius ; aratus of Soli; aristoteles, the philosopher ; damogeron ; demgcritus ; Di~ dymus of Alexandria ; cassius bionysius of Utica ; diophanes of Nicaea ; flokentinus j fronto ; hierocles, governor of Bithynia under Diocletian ; hippocrates, of Cos, a veterinary surgeon, at the time of Constantine the Great; leontinus or leontius ; nestor, a poet in the time of Alexander Severus ; pamphil us of Alex­andria; paramus ; pelagonius ; ptolemaeus of Alexandria ; the brothers quintilius (Gordi-anus and Maximus) ; tarentinus ; theomnes-tus ; varro ; zoroaster. Cassianus Bassus has contributed only two short extracts of his ow% namely, cc. 5 and 36 of the fifth book.

The various subjects treated of in the Geoponica will best appear from the contents of the different books, which are as follow : 1. Of the atmosphere and the rising and setting of the stars. 2. Of general matters appertaining to agriculture, and of the different kinds of corn. 3. Of the various agricultural duties suitable to each month. 4 and 5. Of the cultivation of the vine. 6—8. Of the making of wine. 9. Of the cultivation of the olive and the making of oil. 10—12. Of horti­culture. 13. Of the animals and insects injurious to plants. 14. Of pigeons and other birds. 15. Of natural sympathies and antipathies, and of the management of bees. .16. Of horses, asses, and camels. 17. Of the breeding of cattle. 18. Of the breeding of sheep. 19. Of dogs, hares, deer,, pigs, and of salting meat. 20. Of fishes.

The Geoponica was first published at Venice in 1538, 8vo., in a Latin translation made by Janus Cornarius. The Greek text appeared in the fol­lowing year, 1539, 8vo., at Basel, edited by J. Alex. Brassicanus from a manuscript in the im­perial library in Vienna. The next edition was published at Cambridge, 1704, 8vo., edited by Needham, and the last at Leipzig, 178.1, 4 vols. 8vo., edited by Niclas.

BASSUS, CESE'LLIUS, a Roman knight, and a Carthaginian by birth, on the faith of a dream promised to discover for Nero immense treasures, which had been hidden by Dido when she fled to Africa. Nero gave-, full credit to this tale, and despatched vessels to carry the treasures to Rome ; -but BussuSj after digging about in every

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