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of whom Scaurus contrived to be chosen. Many men of high rank were condemned, and Bestia among the rest, b. c. 110. The nature of Bestia's punishment is not mentioned ; but he was living at Rome in b. c. 90, in which year he went voluntarily into exile, after the passing of the Varia lex, by which all were to be brought to trial who had been engaged in exciting the Italians to revolt.
Bestia possessed many good qualities ; he was prudent, active, and capable of enduring fatigue, not ignorant of warfare, and undismayed by danger; but his greediness of gain spoilt all. (Cic. I. c.; Sail. Jug. 27—29, 40, 65 ; Appian, B. C. i. 37 ; Val. Max. viii. 6. § 4.)
2. L. calpurnius bestia, probably a grandson of the preceding, was one of the Catilinarian conspirators, and is mentioned by Sallust as tribune of the plebs in the year in which the conspiracy was detected, b. c. 63. It appears, however, that he was then only tribune designator; and that he held the office in the following year, b. c. 62, though he entered upon it, as usual, on the 10th of December, 63. It was agreed among the conspirators, that Bestia should make an attack upon Cicero in the popular assembly, and that this should be the signal for their rising in the following night. The vigilance of Cicero, however, as is well known, prevented this. (Sail. Gat. 17, 43; Appian, B. C. ii. 3 ; Pint. Cic. 23 ; Scliol. Bob. pro Sest. p. 294, pro Siill. p. 366, eel Orelli.)
Bestia was aedile in b. c. 59, and was an unsuccessful candidate for the praetorship in 57, notwithstanding his bribery, for which he was brought to trial in the following year and condemned. He was defended by his former enemy, Cicero, who had now become reconciled to him, and speaks of him as his intimate friend in his oration for Caelius. (c. 11.) After Caesar's death, Bestia attached himself to Antony, whom he accompanied to Mu-tina in b. c. 43, in hopes of obtaining the consulship in the place of M. Brutus, although he had not been praetor. (Cic. Phil. xiii. 12, ad Qu. Fr. ii. 3, Phil. xi. 5, xii. 8, xiii. 2.)
BETILIENUS or BETILLI'NUS. [bassus, betilienus.]
BIADICE (BiaSfoij), or, as some MSS. call her, Demodice, the wife of Creteus, who on account of her love for Phrixus meeting with no return, accused him before Athamas. Athamas therefore wanted to kill his son, but he was saved by Ne- phele. (Hygin. Pott. Astr. ii. 20; Schol. ad Pind. Pyth. iv. 288 ; comp. athamas.) [L. S.]
BIANOR, an ancient hero of the town of Mantua, was a son of Tiberis and Manto, and was also called Ocnus or Aucnus. He is said to have built the town of Mantua, and to have called it after his mother. According to others, Ocnus was a son or brother of Auletes, the founder of Perusia, and emigrated to Gaul, where he built C'esena. (Serv. ad Virg. Ed. ix. 60, Ae-n. x. 198.) [L. S.J
BIANOR (Btavwp), a Bithynian, the author of twenty-one epigrams in the Greek Anthology, lived under the emperors Augustus and Tiberius. Plis epigrams were included by Philip of Thessalo- nica in his collection. (Jacobs, xiii. p. 868 ; Fabric. Bibl Graec. iv. p. 467.) [P. S.]
BIAS (Bt'as), son of Amythaon, and brother of the seer Melampus. He married Pero, daughter of Neleus, whom her father had refused to give to any one unless he brought him the oxen of Iphiclus. These Melampus obtained by his courage and skill, and so won the princess for his brother. (Scliol. ad Theocrit. Idyll, iii. 43 ; Schol. ad Apoll. Rkod. i. 118; Paus. iv. 36; comp. Horn. Odyss. xi. 286, &c., xv. 231.) Through his brother also Bias is said to have gained a third of the kingdom of Argos, Melampus having insisted upon it in his behalf, as part of the condition on which alone he would cure the daughters of Proetus and the other Argive women of their madness. According to Pausanias, the Biantidae continued to rule in Argos for four generations. Apollonius Rhodius mentions three sons of Bias among the Argonauts, —Talaus, Are'ius, and Leodocus. (Herod, ix. 34; Pind. Nem. ix. 30 ; Schol. ad. loc. ; Diod. iv. 68 ; Paus. ii. 6, 18 ; Apoll. Rhod. i. 118.) Ac cording to the received reading in Diod. iv. 68, "Bias" was also the name of a son of Melam pus by Iphianeira, daughter of Megapenthes; but it has been proposed to read " Abas," in ac cordance with Paus. i. 43; Apoll, Rhod. i. 142 ; Apollod. i. 9. [E. E.]
BIAS (Bias), of Priene in Ionia, is always reckoned among the Seven Sages, and is mention ed by Dicaearchus (ap. Diog. Latrt. i. 41) as one of the Four to whom alone that title was universally given—the remaining three being Thales, Pittacus, and Solon. We do not know the exact period at which Bias lived, but it appears from the reference made to him by the poet Hipponax, who flourish ed about the middle of the sixth century b. c., that he had by that time become distinguished for his skill as an advocate, and for his use of it in defence of the right. (Diog. Laert. i. 84, 88 ; Strab. xiv. p. 636.) Diogenes Laertius informs us, that he died at a very advanced age, immedi ately after pleading successfully the cause of a friend: by the time the votes of the judges had been taken, he was found to have expired. Like the rest of the Seven Sages, with the exception of Thales, the fame of Bias was derived, not from philosophy, as the word is usually understood, but from a certain practical wisdom, moral and politi cal, the fruit of experience. Many of his sayings and doings are recorded by Diogenes Laertius, in his rambling uncritical way, and by others. In particular, he suffers in character as the reputed author of the selfish maxim fyiKeiv a/s i^iff^aovras ; and there is a certain ungallant dilemma on the subject of marriage, which we find fathered upon him in Aulus Gellius. (Herod, i, 27, 170 ; Aristot. Itfwt. ii. 13. § 4 ; Cic. de Amic. 16, Parad. i. ; Diod. Exc. p. 552, ed. Wess ; Gell. v. 11 ; Diog. Laert. i. 82—88 ; comp. Herod. i. 20-22 ; Plut. Sol. 4.) [E. E.]
BIBACULUS, the name of a family of the Furia gens.
1. L. furius bibaculus, quaestor, fell in the battle of Cannae, b. c. 216. (Liv. xxii. 49.)
2. L. furius bibaculus, a pious and religious man, who, when he was praetor, carried, at the command of his father, the magister of the college of the Salii, the ancilia with his six lictors preceding him, although he was exempted from this duty by virtue of his praetorship. (Val. Max. i. 1. § 9; Lactant. i. 21.)
3. M. Fuuius bibaculus. See below.