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CADMUS.

defeat of Xerxes, Cadmus returned to Sicity with the treasures, though he might easily have appro­priated them to his own use. (Herod, vii. 163, 164.) Herodotus calls Cadmus a Coan, and states further, that he received the tyranny of Cos from his father, but gave the state its liberty of his own accord, merely from a sense of justice; and that after this he went over to Sicily and dwelt along

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with the Samians at Zancle, afterwards called Messene. M'uller (Dor. i. 8. § 4, note q.) thinks that this Cadmus was the son of the Scythes, tyrant of Zancle, who was driven out by the Sa­mians (b. c. 497), and who fled to the court of Persia, where he died. (Herod, vi. 23.) In reply to the objection, that Herodotus speaks of Cadmus having inherited the tyranny from his father, but of Scythes having died in Persia, Mliller remarks that the government of Cos was probably given to his father by the Persians, but that he notwithstand­ing continued to reside in Persia, as we know was the case with Histiaeus. If this conjecture is correct, Cadmus probably resigned the tyranny of Cos through desire of returning to his native town, Zancle. He was accompanied to Sicily by the poet Epicharmus. (Suidas, s. v. 'eth^c^o?.)

CADMUS (KdS/J.os}. 1. Of Miletus, a son of Pandion, and in all probability the earliest Greek historian or logographer. He lived, according to the vague statement of Josephus (c. Apion. i. 2; comp. Clem. Alex. Strom. vi. p. 267), very shortly

before the Persian invasion of Greece; and Suidas

makes the singular statement, that Cadmus was only a little younger than the mythical poet Or­pheus, which arises from the thorough confusion of the mythical Cadmus of Phoenicia and the historian Cadmus. But there is every probability that Cad­mus lived about b.c. 540. Strabo (i. p. 18) places Cadmus first among the three authors whom he calls the earliest prose writers among the Greeks : viz. Cadmus, Pherecydes, and Hecataeus; and from this circumstance we may infer, that Cadmus was the most ancient of the three—an inference which is also confirmed by the statement of Pliny (//. N. v. 31), who calls Cadmus the first that ever wrote (Greek) prose. When, therefore, in another passage (vii. 56) Pliny calls Pherecydes the most ancient prose writer, and Cadmus of Miletus sim­ply the earliest historian, we have probably to re­gard this as one of those numerous inconsistencies into which Pliny fell by following different autho­rities at different times, and forgetting what he had said on former occasions. All, therefore, we can infer from his contradicting himself in this case is, that there were some ancient authorities who made Pherecydes the earliest Greek prose writer, and not Cadmus; but that the latter was the ear­liest Greek historian, seems to be an undisputed fact. Cadmus wrote a work on the foundation of Miletus and the earliest history of Ionia generally, in four books (kticti? Mi\^rov Kal rrjs oA.Tjs'Icoytas). This work appears to have been lost at a very early period, for Dionysius of Halicarnassus (Jud. de Thucyd. 23) expressly mentions, that the work known in his time under the name of Cadmus was considered a forgery. When Suidas and others (Bekker's Anecd. p. 781), call Cadmus of Miletus the inventor of the alphabet, this statement must be regarded as the result of a confusion between the mythical Cadmus, who emigrated from Phoe­nicia into Greece; and Suidas is, in fact, obviously guilty of this confusion, since he says, that Cad-

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CAECILIA.

mils of Miletus introduced into Greece the alpha­bet which the Phoenicians had invented. (Comp. Clinton, Fast. Hell. ii. p. 454, 3rd edition.)

2. Of Miletus, the Younger, is mentioned only by Suidas, according to whom he was a son of Ar-chelaus, and a Greek historian, concerning whose time nothing is said. Suidas ascribes to him two works, one on the history of Attica, in sixteen books, and the second on the deliverance from the sufferings of love, in fourteen books. [L. S.]

CAECILIA, GALA, is said to have been the genuine Roman name for Tanaquil, the wife of Tarquinius Priscus. (Plin. H.N. viii. 74; Val. Max. Epit. de Praen. in fin.; Festus, s. v. Gaia; Plut. Quaest. Rom. p. 271, e.) Both her names, Caia and Caecilia,, are of the same root as Caeculus, and the Roman Caecilii are supposed to have derived their origin from the Praenestine Caeculus. (Fest. s. v. Caeculus.) The story of Caia Caecilia is related under tanaquil ; and it is sufficient to say here, that she appears in the early legends of Rome as a woman endowed with prophetic powers, and closely connected with the worship of the god of the hearth. That she was, at the same time, looked upon as a model of domestic life, may be inferred from the fact, that a newly married woman, before entering the house of her husband, on being asked what her name was, answered, " My name is Caia." (VaL Max. L c.; Pint. Quaest. Rom. p. 271, e.) [L, S.]

CAECILIA, the daughter of T. Pomponius Atticus, who is called Caecilia, because her father

took the name of his uncle, Q. Caecilius, by whom he was adopted. She was married to M. Vipsanius Agrippa. Tatticus, p. 415, a.)

CAECILIA or METELLA, Land 2. Daugh­ters of Q. Caecilius Metellus Macedonicus, consul b. c. 143, one of whom married C. Servilius Vatia, and was by him the mother of P. Servilius Vatia Isauricus, consul in 79, and the other P. Corneliua Scipio Nasica, consul in 111, and was the grand­mother of Q. Metellus Pius Scipio, consul in 52. (Cic. pro Dom. 47, post Red. ad Quir. 3, Brut. 58.)

3. The daughter of L. Caeciiius Metellus Calvus, consul in b. c. 142, and the brother of Metellus Nu-midicus, consul in 109, was married to L. Licinius Lucullus, praetor in 103, and was by him the mother of the celebrated Lucullus, the conqueror of Mithridates. Her moral character was in bad re­pute. (Plut. Lucull. 1; Cic. inVer. iv. 66; Aurel. Vict. de Vir. III. 62.)

4. Daughter of Q. Caecilius Metellus Balearicus, consul in b. c. 123, was the wife of Ap. Claudius Pul-cher, consul in 79, and the mother of Ap. Claudius Pulcher, consul in 54, and of P. Clodius Pulcher, tribune of the plebs in 58. (Cic. de Div. i. 2, 44, pro Rose. Am. 10, 50 : in the former of the two latter passages she is erroneously called Nepotis film instead of Nepotis soror.J Her brother was Q. Metellus Nepos, consul in 98, and we accord­ingly find his two sons, Metellus Celer and Metel­lus Nepos, called the fratres (cousins) of her sons Ap. Claudius and P. Clodius. (Cic. ad Att. iv. 3, ad Fain. v. 3, pro Gael. 24.)

Cicero relates (de Div. II. cc.\ that in conse­quence of a dream of Caecilia's in the Marsic war, the temple of Juno Sospita was restored.

5. Daughter of L. Metellus Dalmaticus, consul in b.c. 119, and not of Q. Metellus Pius, the pontifex maximus, consul in 80, as has been inferred from Plutarch. (Sull. 6.) Her father's praenomen is Lucius, and he is said to have rebuilt the templo of

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