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Cains was sent into Asia in b. c. 1, where he passed his consulship in the following year, a.d. 1. About this time Phraates IV., king of Parthia, seized upon Armenia, and Caius accordingly prepared to make war against him, but the Parthian king gave up Armenia, and settled the terms of peace at an interview with Caius on an island in the Euphrates. (a. d. 2.) After this Caius went to take possession of Armenia, but was treacherously wounded before the town of Artagera in this country. Of this wound he never recovered, and died some time afterwards at Limyra in Lycia, on the 21st of February, a. d. 4. His brother Lucius had died eighteen months previously, on August 20th, a. d. 2, at Massilia, on his way to Spain. Their bodies were brought to Rome. Some suspected that their death was occasioned by their step-mother Livia. (Dion Cass. liv. 8, 18,26, Iv. 6, 9, 11, 12; Zonar. x. p. 539; Suet. Aug. 26, 56, 64, 65, Tib. 12; Veil. Pat. ii. 101, 102; Tac. Ann. i. 3, ii. 4; Floras, iv. 12. § 42 ; Lapis Ancyranus.)
C. Caesar married Livia or Li villa, the daughter of Antonia [antonia, No. 6], who afterwards married the younger Drusus, but he left no issue. (Tac. Ann. iv. 40.) L. Caesar was to have married Aemilia Lepida, but died previously. (Ann. iii. 23.) There are several coins "both of Caius and Lucius : their portraits are given in the one annexed. (Eckhel, vi. p. 170.)
C. CAESAR CALI'GULA. [caligula.] CAESA'RION, the son of Cleopatra, originally called Ptolemaeus as an Egyptian prince, was born soon after the departure of Julius Caesar from Alexandria in b. c. 47, and probably accompanied his mother to Rome in the following year. Cleopatra said that he was the son of Julius Caesar, and there seems little doubt of this from the time at which Caesarion was born, from the favourable reception of his mother at Rome, and from the dictator allowing him to be called after his own name. Antonius declared in the senate, doubtless after Caesar's death and for the purpose of annoying Augustus, that the dictator had acknowledged Caesarion as his son ; but Oppius wrote a treatise to prove the contrary.
In consequence of the assistance which Cleopatra had afforded Dolabella, she obtained from the triumvirs in b. c. 42 permission for her son Caesarion to receive the title of king of Egypt. In b. c. 34, Antony conferred upon him the title of king of kings; he subsequently called him in his will the s.on of Caesar, and after the battle of Actium (b. c. 31) declared him and his own son Antyllus to be of age. When everything was lost, Cleopatra sent Caesarion with great treasures by way of Aethiopia to India; but his tutor Rhodon persuaded him to return, alleging that Augustus had determined to give him the kingdom of Egypt. After the death of his mother, he was executed by order of Augustus. (Dion Cass. xlviL 31, xlix. 41,1. 1, 3, Ii. 6;
Suet. Caes. 52, Aug. 17; Plut. Caes. 49, Anton* 54, 81, 82.)
CAESARIUS, ST. (Kaurdpeios), a physician who is however better known as having been the brother of St. Gregory Theologus. He was born of Christian parents, his father (whose name was Gre gory) being bishop of Nazianzus. He was care fully and religiously educated, and studied at Alex andria, where he made great progress in geometry, astronomy, arithmetic, and medicine. He after wards embraced the medical profession, and settled at Constantinople, where he enjoyed a great repu tation, and became the friend and physician of the emperor Constantius, A. d. 337—360. Upon the accession of Julian, Caesarius was tempted by the emperor to apostatize to paganism; but he refused, and chose rather to leave the court and return to his native country. After the death of Julian, he was recalled to court, and held in high esteem by the emperors Jovian, Valens, and Valentinian, by one of whom he was appointed quaestor of Bithy- nia. At the time of the earthquake at Nicaea, he was preserved in a very remarkable manner, upon which his brother St. Gregory took occasion to write a letter (which is still extant, Ep. 20, vol. ii p. 19, ed. Paris, 1840), urging upon him the duty of abandoning all worldly cares, and giving himself up entirely to the service of God. This he had long wished to do, but was now prevented from putting his design into execution by his death, which took place a. d, 369, shortly after his baptism. His brother pronounced a funeral oration on the occa sion, which is still extant (Orat. 7, vol. i. p. 198), and from which the preceding particulars of his life are taken; and also wrote several short poems, or epitaphs, lamenting his death. (Opera, vol. ii. p. 1110, &c.) There is extant, under the name of Caesarius, a short Greek work, with the title IleiAms, Q.uaestiones Theologicae et Pliilosopkicae, which, though apparently considered, in the time of Photius (Bibliotlb. Cod. 210), to belong to the bro ther of St. Gregory, is now generally believed to be the work of some other person. The contents of the book are sufficiently indicated by the title. It has been several times published with the works of his brother, St. Gregory, and in collections of the Fathers; and also separately, in Greek and Latin, August. Vindel. 1626, 4to. ed. Elias Ehinger. The memory of St. Caesarius is celebrated in the Rom ish Church on Feb. 25. (Ada Sanctorum, Feb. 25, vol. v. p. 496, &c.; Lambec. Biblioth. Vindob. vol. iv. p. 66, &c., ed. Kollar; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. viii. pp. 435, 436.) [W. A. G.]
CAESARIUS, a distinguished ecclesiastic of the fifth and sixth centuries, was born at Chalons in 468? devoted his youth to the discipline of a monastic life, and was elected bishop of Aries in 502. He presided over this see for forty years, during which period he was twice accused of treason, first against Alaric, and afterwards against Theodoric, but upon both occasions was honourably acquitted. He took an active share in the deliberations of several councils of the church, and gained peculiar celebrity by his strenuous exertions for the suppression of the Semipelagian doctrines, which had been promulgated about a century before by Cassianus, and had spread widely in southern Gaul. A life of Caesarius, which however must be considered rather in the light of a panegyric than of a sober biography, was composed by his friend and pupil, Cyprian, bishop of Toulon..