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his father in 325 [harpalus], as we know from Arrian that Demarchus succeeded him in the satrapy of the Hellespontine Phrygia during Alex­ander's life-time. (See Droysen, Geseli. der Naclif. Alex. p. 68, note 29 ; Thirl wall's Greece, vol. vii. p. 179, note 2.)

2. One of Cassander's generals, whom he sent with a portion of his forces to keep Polysperchon employed in Perrhaebia, while he himself made his way to Macedon to take vengeance on Olym- -pias, b. c. 317. Galas by bribes induced many of his opponent's soldiers to desert him, and blockaded Polysperchon himself in Naxium, a town of Per- rhaebia, whence, on hearing of the death of Olym- pias, he escaped with a few attendants, and took refuge together with Aeacides in Aetolia, b. c. 316. (Diod. xix. 35, 36, 52.) [E. E.]

CALATINUS, A. ATI'LIUS, a distinguished Roman general in the first Punic war, who was twice consul and once dictator. His first consul­ship falls in b. c. 258, when he obtained Sicily as his province, according to Polybius (i. 24), to­gether with his colleague C. Sulpicius Paterculus but according to other authorities alone, to conduct the war against the Carthaginians. He first took the town of Hippana, and afterwards the strongly fortified Myttie.tratu.rn, which he laid in ashes. (Zonar. viii. 11, where he is erroneously called Latinus instead of Calatinus.) Immediately after he attacked Camarina, but during the siege he fell into an ambush, and would have perished with his army, had it not been for the generous exertions of a tribune who is commonly called Calpurnius Flamma, though his name is not the same in all authorities. (Liv. Epit. 17, xxii. 60; Plin. H. N. xxii. 6; Oros. iv. 8 ; Floras, ii. 2. § 13, who erroneously calls Atilius Calatinus dictator ; Aurel. Vict. De Vir. Illustr. 39 ; Gell. iii. 7; Frontin. Stratag. iv. 5. § 10.) After his escape from this danger, he conquered Camarina, Erma, Drepanum, and other places, which had till then been in the possession of the Carthaginians. To­wards the close of the year he made an attack upon Lipara, where the operations were continued by his successor. On his return to Rome he was honoured with a triumph. In b. c. 254 he was invested with the consulship a second time. Shortly before this event the Romans had lost nearly their whole fleet in a storm off cape Pa-chynum, but Atilius Calatinus and his colleague Cn. Cornelius Scipio Asina built a new fleet of 220 ships in the short space of three months, and both the consuls then sailed to Sicily. The main event of that year was the capture of Panormus. (Polyb. i. 38;" Zonar. viii. 14.) In b. c. 249 Atilius Calatinus was appointed dictator for the purpose of carrying on the war in Sicily in the place of Claudius Glycia. But nothing of im­portance was accomplished during his dictatorship, which is remarkable only for being the first in­stance in Roman history of a dictator commanding an army, out of Italy. (Liv. Epit. 19; Suet. Tiber. 2; Zonar. viii. 15; Dion Cass. xxxvi. 17.) Several years later, in B. c. 241, he was chosen as mediator between the proconsul C. Lutatius Catulus and the praetor Q. Valerius, to decide which of the two had the right to claim a triumph, and he de­cided in favour of the proconsul. (Val. Max. ii. 8. § 2.) Beyond the fact that he built a temple of Spes nothing further is known about him. (Cic. Ue Ley. ii. 11, De Nat. Deor, ii. 23; Tacit. Ann.


ii. 49 ; comp. Liv. xxiv. 47, xxv. 7.) A. A tiling Calatinus was a man highly esteemed both by his contemporaries and by posterity, and his tomb was adorned with the inscription " unum hunc plurimae consentiunt gentes populi primarmni fuisse." (Cic. De SenecL 17, De Finib. ii. 35, pro Plane. 25.) [L.S.]

CALAVIUS, the name of a distinguished Campanian family or gens. In conjunction with some other Campamans, the Calavii are said to have set fire to various parts of Rome, b. c. 211, in order to avenge themselves for what the Campanians had suffered from the Romans. A slave of the Calavii betrayed the crime, and the whole family, together with their slaves who had

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been accomplices in the crime, were arrested and punished. (Liv. xxvi. 27-)

1, 2. Novius calavius and Ovius calavius are mentioned as the leaders of the conspiracy which broke out at Capua in b. c. 314. C. Mae-nius was appointed dictator to coerce the insur­gents, and the two Calavii, dreading the conse­quences of their conspiracy, are believed to have made away with themselves. (Liv. ix. 26.)

3. ofilius calavius, son of Ovius Calavius, was a man of great distinction at Capua, and when in b. c. 321 the Campanians exulted over the de­feat of the Romans at Caudium, and believed that their spirit was broken, Ofilius Calavius taught his fellow-citizens to look at the matter in another light, and advised them to be on their guard. (Liv. ix. 7.)

4. pacuvius calavius, a contemporary of Hannibal, and a man of great popularity and in­fluence, who, according to the Roman accounts, acquired his power by evil arts, and sacrificed everything to gratify his ambition and love of dominion. In B. c. 217, when Hannibal had gained his victory on lake Trasimenus, Pacuvius Calavius happened to be invested with the chief magistracy at Capua. He had good reasons for believing that the people of Capua, who were hostile towards the senate, intended on the ap­proach of Hannibal to murder all the senators, and surrender the town to the Carthaginians. In order to prevent this and to secure his ascen­dancy over both parties, he had recourse to the following stratagem. He assembled the senate and declared against a revolt from Rome ; first, because he was connected with the Romans by marriage, his own wife being a daughter of Ap-pius Claudius, and one of his daughters married to a Roman. He then revealed to the senate the intentions of the people, and declared that he would save the senators if they would entrust themselves to him. Fear induced the senators to do as he desired. He then shut all the senators up in the senate-house, and had the doors well guarded, so that no one could leave or enter the edifice. Upon this he assembled the people, told them that all the senators were his prisoners, and advised them to subject each senator to a trial, but before executing one, to elect a better and juster one in his stead. The sentence of death was easily pronounced upon the first senator that was brought to trial, but it was not so easy to elect a better one. The disputes about a successor grew fierce, and the people at last grew tired and were disgusted with their own proceedings, which led to no results. They accordingly ordered that the old senators should retain their'dignity and

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