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for aid, which was granted in opposition to the advice of Demosthenes, and an army was sent into Eu-boea under the command of Phocion, who defeated Callias at Tamynae, b. c. 350. (Aesch. c. Ctes. §§ 85-88, de Fals. Leg. § 180; Dem. de Pac. § 5; Plut. Phoc. 12.) After this, Callias betook himself to the Macedonian court, where he was for some time high in the favour of the king; but, having in some way offended him, he withdrew to Thebes, in the hope of gaining her support in the furtherance of his views. Breaking, however, with the Thebans also, and fearing an attack both from them and from Philip, he applied to Athens, and through the influence of Demosthenes not only obtained alliance, and an acknowledgment of the independence of Chalcis, but even induced the Athenians to transfer to that state the annual contributions (crwrd^eis) from Oreus and Eretria, Callias holding out great promises (apparently never realized) of assistance in men and money from Achaia, Me-gara, and Euboea. This seems to have been in b. c. 343, at the time of Philip's projected attempt on Ambracia. Aesehines of course ascribes his rival's support of Callias to corruption; but Demosthenes may have thought that Euboea, united under a strong government, might serve as an effectual barrier to Philip's ambition. (Aesch. c. Ctes. § 89, &c.; Dem. Philipp. iii. § 85 ; ThirlwalPs Greece, vol. vi. p. 19.) In b. c. 341, the defeat by Phocion of the Macedonian party in Eretria and Oreus under Cleitarchus and Philistides gave the supremacy in the island to Callias. (Dem. de Cor. §§ 86, 99, &c.; PJiilipp. iii. §§ 23, 75, 79 ; Diod. xvi. 74 ; Plut. Dem. 17.) Callias seems to have been still living in b. c. 330, the date of the orations on "the Crown." See Aesch. c. Ctes. §§ 85, 87, who mentions a proposal of Demosthenes to confer on him and his brother Taurosthenes the honour of Athenian citizenship.
5. One of the Thespian ambassadors, who ap peared at Chalcis before the Roman commissioners, Marcius and Atilius, to make a surrender of their city, renouncing the alliance of Perseus, b.c. 172. In common with the deputies from all the Boeotian towns, except Thebes, they were favourably re ceived by the Romans, whose object was to dis solve the Boeotian confederacy,—an object accom plished in the same year. (Polyb. xxvii. 1,2; Liv. xlii. 437 44; Clinton, Fast. ii. p. 80, iii. p. 398.) [E. E.]
CALLI AS (KaAAias), literary. 1. A comic poet, was according to Suidas (s. v.) a son of Lysimachus, and bore the name of Schoenion because his father was a rope or basket maker ((txoivottaokos). He belonged to the old Attic comedy, for Athenaeus (x. p. 453) states, that he lived shortly before Strattis, who appears to have commenced his career as a comic poet about b. c. 412. From the Scholiast on Aristophanes (Equit. 526) we further learn, that Callias was an emulator of Cratinus. It is, therefore, probable that he began to come before the public prior to b. c. 424 ; and if it could be proved that he was the same person as Calliades [calliades], he would have lived at least till B. c. 402. We still possess a few fragments of his comedies, and the names of six are preserved in Suidas, viz. Aiyvirnos, 'AraAavrTj (Zenob. iv. 7), Ky/cAcoTres (perhaps alluded to by Athen. ii. p. 57, and Clem. Alex. Strom. vi. p. 264), IleSrjTai (Athen. viii. p. 344 ; Schol. ad Aristoph. Av. 31, lolj Diog. Laert. ii. 18), Barpaxoj, and
%ovres. Whether he is the same as the Callfas whom Athenaeus (vii. p. 672, x. pp. 448, 453) calls the author of a ypa^ariK-^ Tpcrytpfiia, is uncertain. (Comp. Athen. iv. pp. 140, 176, viL p. 300, xii. pp. 524, 667 ; Pollux, vii. 113; Ety-mol. M. s. v. Elvai ; Meineke, Hist. Grit. Com. Gr. p. 213, &c.)
2. Of Argos, a Greek poet, the author of an epigram upon Polycritus. (Antli. Graec. xi. 232 ; Brunck, Anal. ii. p. 3.)
3. Of Mytilene in Lesbos, a Greek grammarian who lived before the time of Strabo (xiii. p. 618), who mentions him among the celebrated persons born in Lesbos, and states that he wrote commentaries on the poems of Sappho and Alcaeus. (Comp. Athen. iii. p. 85.)
4. Of Syracuse, a Greek historian who wrote a great work on the history of Sicily. He lived, as Josephus (c. Apion. i. 3) expresses it, long after Philistus, but earlier than Timaeus, From the nature of his work it is clear that he was a contemporary of Agathocles, whom, however, the historian survived, as he mentioned the death of the tyrant. This work is sometimes called rd nepl 3Aya6oK\€a, or Trepi *Aya6oK\4a iffropcai^ and sometimes also by Roman writers " Historia de Rebus Siculis." (Athen. xii. p. 542 ; Aelian, FTist. An. xvi. 28 ; Schol. ad Apotlon. Rhod. iii. 41 ; Macrob. Sat. v. 19 ; Dionys. i. 42 ; Fest. s. v. Ro mam.) It embraced the history of Sicily during the reign of Agathocles, from b. c, 317 to 289, and consisted of twenty-two books. (Diod. xxi. Exc. 12. p. 492.) The very few fragments which we possess of the work do not enable us to form an opinion upon it, but Diodorus (xxi. Exc. p. 561) states, that Callias was corrupted by Agathocles with rich bribes; that he sacrificed the truth of history to base gain; and that he went even so far in distorting the truth as to convert the crimes and the violation of the laws human and divine, of which Agathocles was guilty, into praiseworthy actions. (Comp. Suid. s. v. KaAA/as.)
There is another Callias of Syracuse, a contem porary of Demosthenes, who occupied himself with oratory, but who is mentioned only by Plutarch. (Dem. 5, ViL X Oral. p. 844, c.) [L. S.]
CALLIBIUS (KaAAf&os). 1. The Harmost who commanded the garrison with which the Spartans occupied Athens at the request of the Thirty tyrants, b. c. 404. The story told by Plutarch of his raising his staff to strike Autolycus the Athlete (whom the Thirty put to death for presuming to resent the insult), shews that he formed no exception to the coarse and overbearing demeanour so common with Spartan governors. The tyrants conciliated his favour by the most studious deference,—the above case is a strong instance of it, —and he allowed them accordingly to use his soldiers at their pleasure as the instruments of their oppression. (Xen. Hell. ii. 3. §§ 13, 14 ; Diod. xiv. 4; Plut. Lysand. 15.)
2. One of the leaders of the democratic party at Tegea, b. c. 370, who having failed in obtaining the sanction of the Tegean assembly for the project of uniting the Arcadian towns into one body, endeavoured to gain their point by an appeal to arms. They were, however, defeated by the oligarchical leader, Stasippus, and Proxenus, the col-