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CALLIMACHUS.

Theseus hospitably when he went out to fight against, the .Marathonian bull. This work was likewise paraphrased by Marianus, and we still possess some fragments of the original. The works entitled FaAareta and TXavtcos were in all proba­bility likewise epic poems. It appears that there was scarcely any kind of poetry in which Calli-machus did not try his strength, for he is said to have written comedies, tragedies, iambic, and choliambic poems. Respecting his poem Ibis see apollonius rhodius.

Of his numerous prose works not one is extant entire, though there were among them some of the highest importance. The one of which the loss is most to be lamented was entitled niva£ iravro-UaTrolt' (rvyypalu/j.dT(iw, or TriVawes twv ev irdar) ?rai5e/a 8ta\aij.\fydi>T(t)v kol wv <riW'ypcnJ/aj>, in 120 books. This work was the first comprehensive history of Greek literature. It contained, syste­matically arranged, lists of the authors and their works. The various departments of literature ap­pear to have been classified, so that Callimachus spoke of the comic and tragic poets, of the orators, law-givers, philosophers, &c., in separate books, in which the authors were enumerated in their chronological succession. (Athen. ii.p. 70, vi. p.252, xiii. p. 585, xv. p. 669 ; Diog. Laert. iv. 23, viii. 86.) It is natural to suppose that this work was the fruit of his studies in the libraries of Alexan­dria, and that it mainly recorded such authors as were contained in those libraries. His pupil Aris­tophanes of Byzantium wrote a commentary upon it. (Athen. ix. p. 408, viii. 336; Etym. Mag. s. v. n*Va|.) Among his other prose works we find mentioned the following :—1. MoutreTbz', which is usually supposed to have treated of the Museum of Alexandria and the scholars connected with it. 2. Tlepl a,y<avwv. 3. ^EQviKal ovofjiaffiat. 3. OccUjUacrta or ©avjuarcoy tcoj> ets airaffav ttjv yyv Kal tottovs ovtw ffvvay&yri, a work similar, though probably much superior, to the one still extant by Antigonus Carystius. 4. ^irofJLvrip.a'ra, iaropiKd. 5. No/xiyua fiapgapiKa. 6. Kricreis vriffwv Kal TroAewi'. 7."Ap7ous oiicifffJioi. 8. Hcpl dveiju/w. 9. Tlepl *'opv£wv. 10. ^vvayooyr^ ttotc^uwz/, or irfpl toov eis oiKovjLLtvy iroraju.toi', &c., &c. A list of his works is given by Suidas, and a more complete one by Fabricius. (Bibl. Graec. iii. p. 815, £c.)

The first edition of the six hymns of Calli­machus appeared at Florence in 4to., probably between 1494 and 1500. It was followed by the Aldine, Venice, 1513, 8vo., but a better edition, in which some gaps are filled up and the Greek scholia are added, is that of S. Gelenius, Basel, 1532, 4to., reprinted at Paris, 1549, 4to. A more complete edition than any of the preceding ones is that of H. Stephanus, Paris, 1566, fol. in the col­lection of " Poetae principes Heroici Carminis." This edition is the basis of the text which from that time has been regarded as the vulgate. A second edition by H. Stephanus (Geneva, 1577, 4to.) is greatly improved: it contains the Greek scholia, a Latin translation, thirty-three epigrams of Callimachus, and a few fragments of his other works. Henceforth scarcely anything was done for the text, until Th. Graevius undertook a new and comprehensive edition, which was completed by his father J. G. Graevius. It appeared at Utrecht, 1697, 2 vols. 8vo. It contains the notes of the previous editors, of R. Bentley, and the fa­mous commentary of Ez. Spanheim. This edition

CALLIMACHUS.

is the basis of the one edited by J. A. Ernesti at Leiden, 1761, 2 vols. 8vo., which contains the whole of the commentary of Graevius' edition, a much improved text, a more complete collection o<f the fragments, and additional notes by Heinster- huis and Ruhnken. Among the subsequent edi­ tions we need only mention those of Ch. F.Loesner (Leipzig, 1774, 8vo.), H. F. M. Volzer (Leipzig, 1817, 8vo.), and C. F. Blomfield (London, 1815, 8vo.). [L S.]

CALLIMACHUS, a physician, who was one of the followers of Herophilus, and who must have lived about the second century b. c., as he is meu<- tioned by Zeuxis. (Galen, Comment* in Hipvocr. " Epid. Vir i. 5. vol. xvii. pt. i. p. 827.) * He wrote a work in explanation of the obsolete words used by Hippocrates, which is not now extant, but which is quoted by Erotianus, (Gloss* Hippocr. praef.) He may perhaps be the same person who is mentioned by Pliny as having written a work De Coronis. (IT. N. xxi. 9.) [W. A. G.]

CALLIMACHUS (KaAA^uaxos), an artist of uncertain country, who is said to have invented the Corinthian column. (Vitruv. iv. 1. § 10.) As Scopas built a temple of Athene at Tegea with Corinthian columns in b. c. 396, Callimachus must have lived before that time. Pausaniaa (i. 26. § 7) calls him the inventor of the art of boring marble (rovs \i6ovs irpoaros erpvirycre^ which Thiersch (Epoch. Anm. p. 60) thinks is to be understood of a mere perfection of that art, which could not have been entirely unknown to so late a period. By these inventions as well as by his other productions, Callimachus stood in good reputation with his contemporaries, although he did not belong to the first-rate artists. He was so anxious to give his works the last touch of perfec­ tion, by elaborating the details with too much care, that he lost the grand and sublime. Dionysius therefore compares him and Calamis to the oratoi Lysias \rijs Xerrr^T^ros eVe/ca Kal Tys %aprros), whilst he draws a parallel between Polycletus and Phidias and Isocrates, on account of the orsfj.vbv Kal ^ya,\6r&xvov Kal d^Ka/Jt-arucov. (Judic. Isocr. c. 3.) Callimachus was never satisfied with himself^ and therefore received the epithet KaKi%oT€Xvos> (Paus. i. 26. § 7.) Pliny (H. N. xxxiv. 8. s. 19) says the same, and gives an exact interpretation of the surname : " Semper calumniator sul nee finem habens diligentiae ; ob id KaKi^orexvos appellatus." Vitruvius says, that Callimachus " propter elegan- tiam et subtilitatem artis marmoreae ab Athenien- sibus Kardrexvos fuerat nominatus." Sillig (Cat. Art. p. 125) conjectures, after some MSS., that Ko,rrarj]^ir^xvos must be read instead' of /ca/a£o- T€xvos; but this is quite improbable on account of Pliny's translation, " calumniator sui." Whether the Kardrex^os of Vitruvius is corrupt or a second surname (as Siebelis supposes, ad Paus. i. 26. § 7), cannot be decided. So much is certain, that Cal­ limachus' style was too artificial. Pliny (/. c.), speaking of a work representing some dancing Lacedaemonian women, says, that his excessive elaboration of the work had destroyed all its beauty. Pausanias (i. 26. § 7) describes a golden lamp, a work of Callimachus dedicated to Athene, which if filled with oil, burnt precisely one whole year without ever going out. It is scarcely pro­ bable that the painter Callimachus, mentioned by Pliny (L c.), should be our statuary, although he is generally identified with him. [W T.]

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