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On this page: Callfnes – Callimedon – Callimorphus – Callinicus – Calliope – Calliopius

CALLINUS.

CALLIMEDON (K«AAt;ue5ajj/), surnamed oe Kapa§os, or the crab, on account of his fondness for that kind of shell-fish (Athen. iii. p. 100, c.), was one of the orators at Athens in the Macedo­nian interest, and accordingly fled from the city to Antipater, when the Athenians rose against the Macedonians upon the death of Alexander the Great in b. c. 323. When the Macedonian supre­macy was reestablished at Athens by Antipater, Callimedon returned to the city, but was obliged to fly from it again upon the outbreak against Phocion in b. c. 317. The orators Hegemon and Pythocles were put to death along with Phocion, and Callimedon was also condemned to death, but escaped in safety. (Plut. Dem. 27, Phoc. 27, 33, 35.) Callimedon was ridiculed by the comic poets. (Athen. i. c. p. 104, c. d., viii. p. 339, f., xiv. p. 614, d.)

CALLIMORPHUS (KaAXtVop^os), an army- surgeon attached to the sixth legion or cohort of contarii, who lived probably in the second century after Christ. He wrote a work entitled 'lorropiat TLapOitcaf, Historia Parthica, which may perhaps have been an account of Trajan's campaigns, a. d. 114 — 116, and in which, according to Lucian (Quom. Histor. sit Conscrib. § 16), he asserted that it was especially the province of a physician to write historical works, on account of his connexion, through Aesculapius, with Apollo, the author of all literature. [W. A. G.]

CALLFNES (KaAAf^y), a veteran officer in the

royal companion-cavalry (r-fjs 'ittttov ttjs eTcupi/njs) of Alexander the Great, took an active part in the reconciliation between him and his army in b. c. 324. (Arrian, Anab. vii. 11.)

CALLINICUS (KaAAinKos), surnamed Suto- rius, a Greek sophist and rhetorician, was a native of Syria, or, according to others, of Arabia Petraea. He taught rhetoric at Athens in the reign of the emperor Gallienus (a. d. 259 — 268), and was an opponent of the rhetorician Genethlius. (Suid. s. vv. KaAAifiKos, TeyeflAios, and 'lovXiavos ao/jlvov.} Suidas and Eudocia (p. 268) mention several works of Callinicus, all of which are lost, with the excep­ tion of a fragment of an eulogium on Rome, which is very inferior both in form and thought. It is printed in L. Allatius' " Excerpt. Rhet. et Sophist." pp. 256 — 258, and in Orelli's edition of Philo, " De VII Spect. Orb." Lipsiae, 1816, 8 vo. Among the other works of Callinicus there was one on the history of Alexandria, in ten books, mentioned by Suidas and Eudoeia, and referred to by Jerome in the preface to his commentary on Daniel. (Fabric. Sill. Graec. iii. p. 36, vi. p. 54.) [L. S.] CALLINI'CUS SELEUCUS. [seleucus.] CALLI'NUS (Ka\A«/os). 1. Of Ephesus, the earliest Greek elegiac poet, whence either he or Archilochus is usually regarded by the ancients as the inventor of elegiac poetry. As regards the time at which he lived, we have no definite state­ ment, and the ancients themselves endeavoured to determine it from the historical allusions which they found in his elegies. It has been fixed by some at about b. c. 634, and by others at about b. c. <5807 whereas some are inclined to place Cal- linus as far back as the ninth century before the Christian aera, and to make him more ancient even than Hesiod. The main authorities for determin­ ing his age are Strabo (xiv. p. 647), Clemens Alex- andrinus (Strom. i. p. 333), and Athenaeus (xii. p. 525). But the interpretation of these passages

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CALLIOPIUS.

is involved in considerable difficulty, since the Cimmerian invasion of Asia Minor, to which they allude, is itself very uncertain; for history records three different inroads of the Cimmerians into Asia Minor. We cannot enter here into a refutation of the opinions of others, but confine ourselves to our own views of the case. From Strabo it is evident that Callinus, in one of his poems, mentioned Mag­nesia on the Maeander as still existing, and at war with the Ephesians. Now, we know that Magnesia was destroyed by the Treres, a Cimmerian tribe, in b. c. 727, and consequently the poem referred to by Strabo must have been written previous to that year, perhaps about B. c. 730, or shortly before Archilochus, who in one of his earliest poems men­tioned the destruction of Magnesia. Callinus him­self, however, appears to -have long survived that event; for there is a line of his (Fragm. 2, comp. Fragm. 8, ed. Bergk) which is usually referred to the destruction of Sardis by the Cimmerians, about b. c. 678. If this calculation is correct, Callinus must have been in the bloom of life at the time of the war between Magnesia and Ephesus, in which he himself perhaps took a part. We possess only a very few fragments of the elegies of Callinus, but among them there is one of twenty-one lines^ which forms part of a war-elegy, and is consequently the most ancient specimen of this species of poetry ex­tant. (Stobaeus, Floril. li. 19.) In this fragment the poet exhorts his- countrymen to courage and perseverance against their enemies, who are usually supposed to be the Magnesians, but the fourth line of the poem seems to render it more probable that Callinus was speaking of the Cimmerians. This elegy is one of great beauty, and gives us the high­est notion of the talent of Callinus. It is printed in the various collections of the "Poetae Graeci Minores." All the fragments of Callinus are col­lected in N. Bach's Callim, Tyrtaei et Asii Fray-menta (Leipzig, 1831, 8vo.) and Bergk's Poetae Lyrici Graeci^ p. 303, &c. (Comp. Francke, Calli-nusj sive Quaestiones de Origine Carminis Elegiaci^ Altona, 1816, 8vo.; Thiersch, in the Ada Philol. Monacens. iii. p. 571 ; Bode, Gesch. der Lyrisch. Dichtkunst) i. pp. 143-161.)

2. A disciple and friend of Theophrastus, who left him in his will a piece of land at Stageira and 3000 drachmae. Callinus was also appointed by the testator one of the executors of the will. (Diog. Lae'rt. v. 52, 55, 56.)

3. Of Hermione, lived at a later period than the preceding one, and was a friend of the philosopher Lycon, who bequeathed to him in his will the works which he had riot yet published. (Diog. Lae'rt. v. 70-74.) [L. S.]

CALLIOPE. [musae.j

CALLIOPIUS. In all, or almost all, the MSS. of Terence, known not to be older than the ninth century, we find at the end of each play the words " Calliopius recensui," from whence it has very na­turally been inferred, that Calliopius was some grammarian of reputation, who had revised and corrected the text of the dramatist. Eugraphius, indeed, who wrote a commentary upon the same comedian about the year a. d. 1000, has the fol­lowing note on the word plaudite at the end of the Andria: " Verba sunt Calliopii ejus recitatoris, qui, cum fabulam terminasset elevabat aulaeum scenae, et alloquebatur populum, Vos valete, Vos plaudite sive faveie;" but this notion is altogether inconsistent with the established meaning of

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