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On this page: Calynthus – Calypso – Camaterus – Cambylus – Cambyses

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CAMBAULES.

Dionysus, whose image was carried from Calydon to Patrae (Paus. vii, 21. § 1), and of Meleager, the hero in the Calydonian hunt. (Ov. Met. viii. 231.) [L. S.]

CALYNTHUS (Kd\vvOos), a statuary of un­ certain country, contemporary with Onatas, b. c. 468-448. (Pans. x. 13. § 5.) [W. I.J

CALYPSO (KaAuipctf). Under this name we find in Hesiod (Tkeog. 359) a daughter of Oceanus and Tethys, and in Apollodorus (i. 2. § 7) a daugh­ ter of Nereus, while the Homeric Calypso is de­ scribed as a daughter of Atlas. (Od. i. 50.) This last Calypso was a nymph inhabiting the island of Ogygia, on the coast of which Odysseus was thrown when he was shipwrecked. Catypso loved the un­ fortunate hero, and promised him eternal youth and immortality if he would remain with her. She detained him in her island for seven years, until at length she was obliged by the gods to allow him to continue his journey homewards. (Od. v. 28, &c., vii. 254, &c.) [L. S.]

CAMATERUS, ANDRONI'CUS ('AvSpoviKos Ka/mr^pos), a relative of the emperor Manuel Com- nenus (a. d. 1143 to 1180), who honoured him with the title of Sebastus, and promoted him to the offices of praefect of the city and praefect of the &Ly\a9 i, e. praefectus vigilum, or praefect of the imperial guards. Camaterus is said to have been a man of great intellect and a powerful speaker. He is the author of several theologico:polemical works, an extract from one of which is all that has appeared in print. Among them we may mention one entitled 'Az/Tip/^-n/ca, a dialogue against the Latins. A portion of this work which relates to the Processio Spiritus Sancti, was subsequently refuted by J. Veccus, and both the original and the refutation are printed in L. Allatius1 Graecia Orthodox, ii. p. 287, &c. His other works are still extant in MS. Andronicus Camaterus was the father of Joannes Ducas, to whom Eustathius dedicated his commentary on Dionysius Periegetes. (Cave, Hist. Lit. i. p. 675, with Wharton's Append, p. 24; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. xi. p. 278.) [L. S.]

CAMATERUS, JOANNES flwrfw/Tjs Ka,ua-T^po'?), patriarch of Constantinople from a. d. 1198 to 1204. We have four iambic lines in praise of him, which were written by Ephraemus, and are printed in Leo Allatius, De Consensu., &c. (i. p. 724.) Nicolaus Comnenus (Praenot. My stag. p. 251) mentions an oration of his on homicide, and another, on the marriage of Consobrini, is printed in Freher's Jus Graecum (iv. p. 285). An epistle of J. Camaterus addressed to Innocent III. is printed in a Latin translation among the letters of Innocent, with the reply of the latter. In this letter Camaterus expresses his wonder at the Ro­man church assuming the title of the universal church. Among the other works of his which are still extant in MS. there is an iambic poem in­scribed to the emperor Manuel Comnenus, and en­titled TTfpl ^wSiaitOV KVK\OV KO.l TKV CtAAwi/ CL1TGLVT&V

Tcav kv ovpavy. (Cave, Hist. Lit. i. p. 693 ; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. iv. p. 154, &c., xi. p. 279, &c.) [L. S.] CAMBAULES (Ka^gcw/V^s), the leader of a horde of Gauls before they invaded Greece in b. c. 279. The barbarians were at first few in number, but when they reached Thrace their forces had increased to such an extent, that they were divided into three grait armies, which were placed under Cerethrius, Brennus, and Bolgius ; and Cambaules is no longer heard of. (Paus. x. 19. § 4.) [L. S.J

CAMBYSES.

CAMBYLUS (KajugGAos), commander of the Cretans engaged in the service of Antiochus III. in b. c. 214. He and his men were entrusted with the protection of a fort near the acropolis of Sardis during the war against Achaeus, the son of Andro-machus. He allowed himself to be drawn into a treacherous plan for delivering up Achaeus to An­tiochus, by Bolis, who received a large sum of money from Sosibius, the agent of Ptolemy, for the purpose of assisting Achaeus to escape. But the money was divided between Bolis and Cambylus, and instead of setting Achaeus free, they commu­nicated the plan to Antiochus, who again rewarded them richly for delivering Achaeus up to him. (Polyb. viii. 17-23; comp. achaeus.) [L. S.]

CAMBYSES (Ka^o-Tjs). 1. The father of Cyrus the Great, according to Herodotus and Xe-nophon, the former of whom tells us (i, 107), that Astyages, being terrified by a dream, refrained from marrying his daughter Mandane to a Mede, and gave her to Cambyses, a Persian of noble blood, but of an unambitious temper. (Comp. Just. i. 4.) The father of Cambyses is also called ' Cyrus' by Herodotus (i. ] 11). In so rhetorical a passage as the speech of Xerxes (Herod, vii. 11) we must not look for exact accuracy in the genealogy. Xe-nophon. (Cyrop. i. 2) calls Cambyses the king of Persia, and he afterwards speaks of him (Cyrop. viii. 5) as still reigning after the capture of Baby­lon, b. c. 538. But we cannot of course rest much on the statements in a romance. The account of Ctesias differs from the above. [astyages.]

2. A son of Cyrus the Great, by Amytis accord­ing to Ctesias, by Cassandane according to Hero­dotus, who sets aside as a fiction the Egyptian story of his having had Nitetis, the daughter of Apries, for his mother. This same Nitetis appears in another version of the tale, which is not very consistent with chronology, as the concubine of Cambyses; and it is said that the detection of the fraud of Amasis in substituting her for his own daughter, whom Cambyses had demanded for his seraglio, was the cause of the invasion of Egypt by the latter in the fifth year of his reign, b. c. 525. There is, however, no occasion to look for any other motive than the same ambition which would have led Cyrus to the enterprise, had his life been spared, besides that Egypt, having been conquered by Nebuchadnezzar, seems to have formed a por­tion of the Babylonian empire. (See Jerem. xliii. xlvi. ; Ezek. xxix.—xxxii.; Newton, On the Pro-phecies, vol. i. p. 357, &c.; comp. Herod, i. 77.) In his invasion of the country, Cambyses is said by Herodotus to have been aided by Phanes, a Greek of Halicarnassus, who had fled from the service of Amasis ; and, by his advice, the Persian king ob­tained the assistance of an Arabian chieftain, and thus secured a safe passage through the desert, and a supply of water for his army. Before the in­vading force reached Egypt, Amasis died and was succeeded by his son, who is called Psammenitus by Herodotus, and Amyrtaeus by Ctesias. Ac­cording to Ctesias, the conquest of Egypt was mainly effected through the treachery of Comba-pheus, one of the favourite eunuchs of the Egyp­tian king, who put Cambyses in possession of the passes on condition of being made viceroy of the country. But Herodotus makes no mention either of this intrigue, or of the singular stratagem by which Polyaenus says (vii. 9), that Pelusium waa taken almost without resistance. He tells 119

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