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CARYATIS (Kapuaris), a surname of Artemis, derived from the town of Caryae in Laconia. Here the statue of the goddess stood in the open air, and maidens celebrated a festival to her every year with dances. (Paus. iii. 10. § 8, iv. 16. § 5 ; Serv, ad Virq, Eclog, viii. 30.) [L. S.J
CARYST IUS, ANTI'GONUS. [antigonus of carystus.]
CARYSTIUS (Kapu<mos), a Greek grammarian of Pergamus, who lived after the time of Nicander (Athen. xv. p. 684), and consequently about the end of the second century b. c. He is mentioned as the author of several works : 1. 'IcrropiKci vtto/ji,- vrfpara, sometimes also called simply vTro/^Vara, an historical work of which great use was made by Athenaeus, who lias preserved a considerable num ber of statements from it. (i. p. 24, x. p. 434, &c., xi pp. 506, 508, xii. pp. 542, 548, xiii. p. 577, xiv. p. 639 ; comp. Schol. ad Aristoph. Av. 575, ad T/ieocrit* xiii. 22.) It must have consisted of at least three books, as the third is referred to by Athenaeus. 2. Ile/Ji 5/5a<r«:aAic5z.', that is, an ac count of the Greek dramas, of the time and place of their performance, of their success, and the like. (Athen. vi. p. 235; the Greek Life of Sophocles,) 3. Tlepl ScoraSou, or a commentary on the poet Sotades. (Athen. xiv. p. 620.) All these works are lost. [L. S.]
CARYSTUS (Kapucrros), a son of Cheiron and Charielo, from whom the town of Carystus in Euboea was believed to have derived its name. (Scliol. ad Pind. Pyili. iv. 181: Eustath. ad Horn. p. 281.) [L. S.]
CASCA, the name of a plebeian family of the Servilia gens.
1. C. servilius casca, was tribune of the plebs in b. c. 212. In that year M. Postumius, a farmer of the public revenue, and a relation of Casca, was accused of having defrauded the republic, and his only hope of escaping condemnation was Casca, who, however, was either too honest or too timid to interpose on his behalf. (Liv. xxv. 3.)
2. P. servilius casca, one of the conspirators against Caesar, who aimed the first stroke at his assassination, b. c. 44. He was in that year tribune of the plebs, and soon afterwards fled from Rome, as he anticipated the revenge which Octavianus was going to take. His leaving Rome as tribune was against the constitution, and his colleague, P. Titius, accordingly carried a decree in the assembly of the people, by which he was deprived of his tribuneship. He fought in the battle of Phi-lippi, and died shortly afterwards. (Appian B. C. ii. 113, 115, 117 ; Dion Cass. xliv. 52, xlvi. 49; Cic. Pliilipp. xiii. 15, ad Ait. i. 17, ad Brut. i. 18; Pint. Brut. 17, 45.)
3. C. servilius casca, a brother of the preceding, and a friend of Caesar, notwithstanding which he was likewise one of the conspirators against the life of the dictator. (Appian, B. C. ii. 113; Plut. Caes. 66; Suet. Caes. 82; Dion Cass. xliv. 52; Cic. Pliilipp. ii. 11.)
The foregoing coin of the Servilia gens "belongs either to No. 2 or No. 3 ; it contains on the obverse the head of Neptune., and on the reverse a figure of Victory. [L. S.]
A. CASCE'LLIUS, an eminent Roman jurist, contemporary with Trebatius, whom he exceeded in eloquence, though Trebatius surpassed him in legal skill. Their contemporary, Ofilius, the disciple of Servius Sulpicius, was more learned than either. Cascellius, according to Pliny the Elder (If. JV. viii. 40), was the disciple of one Volcatius, who, on a certain occasion, was saved by a dog from the attack of robbers. Pomponius (Dig. 1? tit. 2, s. 2, § 45), according to the Florentine manuscript, writes thus—" Fuit Cascellius, Mucius, Volusii auditor: denique in illius honorem testa-mento P. Mucium nepotem ejus reliquit heredem." This may be understood to mean that, at the end of a long life, Cascellius made the grandson of his fellow-pupil his heir, but a man is more likely to honour his praeceptor than his fellow-pupil, and, on this construction, the Latinity is harsh, both in the use of the singular for the plural, and in the reference of the word illius to the former of the two names, Mucius and Volusius, which are connected merely by collocation. Hence the conjectural reading of Balduinus adopted by Bertran-dus (de Vitis Jurisp. 2, 19), viz. " Fuit Cascellius Mucii et Volcatii auditor," has gained the approbation of many critics.
Cascellius was a man of stern republican principles : of Caesar's proceedings he spoke with the utmost freedom. Neither hope nor fear could induce him, b. c. 41, to compose legal forms for the donations of the triumvirs, the fruits of their proscriptions, which he looked upon as wholly irregular and illegal. His independence and liberty of speech he ascribed to two things, which most men regarded as misfortunes, old age and childlessness. In offices of honour, he never advanced bevond the
first step, the quaestorship, though he survived, to the reign of Augustus, who offered him the consulship, which he declined. (Val. Max. vi. 2, § 12, Dig. I c.)
Cascellius is frequently quoted at second hand in the Digest, especially by Javolenus. In Dig. 35, tit. 1, s. 40, s. 1, and 32, s. 100, § 1, we find him differing from Ofilius. In the latter passage, the case proposed was this :—A man leaves by will two specific marble statues, and all his marble. Do his other marble statues pass ? Caseellius thought not, and Labeo agreed with him, in opposition to Ofilius and Trebatius.
In Dig. 38, tit. 5, s. 17, § 5, the following words occur in a quotation from Ulpian, " Labeo quarto Posteriorum scripsit, nee Aristo, vel Aulus, utpote probabile, notant." For Aulus here it is not unlikely that Paulus ought to be read, for Cascellius is no where else in the Digest called Aulus simply. Moreover, he was of older standing than Labeo, and the only work of Cascellius extant in the time of Pomponius (who was anterior to Ulpian), was a book of legal bons mots (benedictorum liber).
In conversation, Cascellius was graceful, amusing, and witty. Several of his good sayings are preserved. When a client, wishing to sever a partnership in a ship, said to him, " Navem dividere volo," his answer was, " You will destroy your ship." He probably remembered the story of the analogous quibble on the words of a treaty, whichs