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CASPERIUS.

to the disgrace of the Romans, deprived Antiochus the Great of his whole fleet. Vatinius, an un­popular personage, for whom it is to be presumed that Cascellius had no great liking, had been pelted with stones at a gladiatorial show, and consequently got a clause inserted in the edict of the aediles, " ne quis in arenam nisi pomum mitteret." About this time, the question was put to Cascellius, whe­ther a nux pinea were a pomum, it being a legal doubt whether fruits with hard as well as with soft external rind, were included in the term. " Si in Vatinium missurus es, pomum est." (Quintil. vi. 3 ; Macrob. Saturn, ii. 6.)

Horace (Ars Poet. 371, 372) pays a compliment to the established legal reputation of Cascellius—

"———nee scit quantum Cascellius Aulus, Et tamen in pretio est."

The old scholiast on this passage remarks, that Gellius mentions Cascellius with praise, but this seems to be a mistake, unless the lost portions of Gellius should bear out the scholiast's assertion. He probably confounds the jurist with Caesellius Vindex, the grammarian^ who is frequently cited by Gellius. The name of the jurist is often cor­ruptly spelt Caesellius, Ceselius, &c.

When an interdictum recuperandae possessionis was followed by an action on a sponsio, if the claimant were successful in recovering on the sponsio, he was entitled as a consequence to the restitution of possession by what was called the Cascellianum or secutorium judicium, (Gaius, iv. 166, 160.) It is likely that this judicium was de­vised by A. Cascellius.

Cicero (pro£albo,2Q^) and Val. Maximus (viii. 12, § 1) say, that Q. Mucius Scaevola, the augur, a most accomplished lawyer, when he was consulted concerning jus praediatoriwn, used to refer his clients to Furius and Cascellius, who, being them­selves praediatores, and consequently personally in­terested in that part of the law, had made it their peculiar study. The quotations from our Cascellius in the Digest, do not point to praediatorian law. and a consideration of dates goes far to prove, that Cascellius praediator, was not our jurist, but per­haps his father. The old augur died when Cicero was very young, but our Cascellius might still have been his disciple.

(Amm. Marc. xxx. 6 ; Rutilius, Vitae JCtorum^ 36 ; Bertrandus, de Jurisp. ii. 19 ; Guil. Grotius, i. 10 ; Strauch. Vitae aliquot JCtorum, p. 62 ; Mena- gius, Amoen.Jur. c. 8 ; D'Arnaud, Vitae Scaevola- rum^ § 4, p. 14; Heineccius, Hist. Jur. Rom. §§ 190, 191 ; Edelmann, [Stockmann,] De Benedictis A. Cascellii, Lips. 1803 ; Bynkershoek, Praetermissa ad Pomponium, p. 57 ; Lagemans, de Aulo Cas- cellioJCto. Lug. Bat. 1823 ; Zimmern, JR. R. G. i. pp. 299, 300.) [J. T. G.]

CASIUS (Kacnos), a surname of Zeus, derived from mount Casion not far from Pelusium, on which the god had a temple. (Strab. xvi. p. 760; Plin. //. N. iv. 20, v. 14.) [L. S.j

CASMILUS. [cadmilus.]

CASPERIUS, a centurion who served under the praefect Caelius Pollio, and commanded the garrison of a stronghold called Gorneae in a. d. 52, during a war between the Armenians and Hibe-rians. Caelius Pollio acted the part of a traitor towards the Armenians, but found an honest oppo­nent in Casperius, who endeavoured, though in vain, to induce the Hiberians to raise the siege. In A. d. 62 we find-him still serving as centurion

619

CASSANDER.

in Armenia, and Corbulo sent him as ambassador to Vologeses to expostulate with him respecting his conduct. (Tac. Ann. xii. 45, xv. 5.) [L. S.j CASPE'RIUS AELIA'NUS. [ablianus.]

CASSANDANE (KcuroravSdvn), a Persian lady of the family of the Achaemenidae, daughter of Pharnaspes, who married Cyrus the Great, and became by him the mother of Cambyses. She died before her husband, who much lamented hex* loss, and ordered a general mourning in her honour. (Herod, ii. 1, iii. 2.) [E. E.j

CASSANDER (KdwavSpos). 1. King of Mace­donia, and son of Antipater, was 35 years old before his father's death, if we may trust an incidental notice to that effect in Athenaeus, and must, there­fore, have been born in or before b. c. 354. (Athen. i. p. 18, a.; Droysen, Gesch. der NacJi-folger Alexanders, p. 256.) His first appearance in history is on the occasion of his being sent from Macedonia to Alexander, then in Babylon, to defend his father against his accusers: here, according to Plutarch (Aleoe. 74), Cassander was so struck by the sight, to him new, of the Persian ceremonial of prostration, that he could not restrain his laughter, and the king, incensed at his rude­ness, is said to have seized him by the hair and dashed his head against the Avail. Allowing for some exaggeration in this story, it is certain that he met with some treatment from Alexander which left on his mind an indelible impression of terror and hatred,—a feeling which perhaps nearly as much as ambition urged him afterwards to the destruction of the royal family. The story which ascribed Alexander's death to poison [see pp. 2019 320], spoke also of Cassander as the person who brought the deadly water to Babylon. With respect to the satrapy of Caria, which is said by Diodorus, Justin, and Curtius to have been given to Cassander among the arrangements of b. c. 323, the confusion between the names Cassander and Asander is pointed out in p. 379, a. (Comp. Diod. xviii. 68.) On Polysperchon's being ap­pointed to succeed Antipater in the regency, Cas­sander was confirmed in the secondary dignity of Chiliarch (see Wess. ad Diod. xviii. 48 ; Pkilolog, Mus. i. 380),—an office which had previously been conferred on him by his father, that he might serve as a check on Antigonus, when (b. c. 321) the latter was entrusted by Antipater with the command of the forces against Eumenes. Being, however, dissatisfied with this arrangement, he strengthened himself by an alliance with Ptolemy Lagi and Antigonus, and entered into war with Polysperchon. For the operations of the contend­ing parties at Athens in b. c. 318, see p. 125, b. The failure of Polysperchon at Megalopolis, in the same year, had the effect of bringing over most of the Greek states to Cassander, and Athens also surrendered to him, on condition that she should keep her city, territory, revenues, and ships, only continuing the ally of the conqueror, who should be allowed to retain Munychia till the end of the war. He at the same time settled the Athenian constitution by establishing 10 minae (half the sum that had been appointed by Antipater) as the qualification for the full rights of citizenship (see Bockh, Publ. Econ. of Athens, i. 7, iv. 3) ; and the union of clemency and energy which his gene­ral conduct exhibited, is said to have procured him many adherents. While, however, he was suc­cessfully advancing his cause in the south, intelli-

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