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9. " De Institutione Divinarum Literarum," an Introduction to the profitable reading of the Holy Scriptures, intended for the use of the monks. This is perhaps the most pleasing of all our author's works. His profound and varied knowledge is here displayed to the best advantage, his instruc­tions are conveyed in more plain and simple phrase­ology than he elsewhere employs, while a truly Christian tone and spirit pervades the whole.

10. " Expositio in Psalmos sive Commenta Psalterii," extracted chiefly from the " Enarra-tiones" of St. Augustin, although we gather from internal evidence that the exegetical treatises of Hilarius, Ambrosius, Hieronymus, and others upon the same subject, had been carefully consulted. As a matter of course we detect in the copy the same features which distinguish the original, the same love of overstrained allegorical interpretation, the same determination to wring from the plainest and least ambiguous precepts some mystical and esoteric doctrine.

11. The " Expositio in Cantica Cantieorum," although breathing a spirit similar to the commen­tary just described, and set down in all MSS. as the production of Cassiodorus, is throughout so different in style and language from all his other dissertations, that its authenticity has with good reason been called in question.

32. " Complexiones in Epistolas Apostolorum, in Acta et in Apocalypsim." Short illustrations of the apostolic Epistles, the Acts, and Revelations, first brought to light by Scipio Maffei, published by him at Florence from a Verona MS. in 1721, and reprinted at London with the notes of Chan­dler in 1722, and at Rotterdam in 1723, all in 8vo. These annotations are not considered by theolo­gians of any particular value.

In addition to the above we frequently find two tracts included among the writings of Cassiodorus, one a rhetorical essay entitled " De Schematibus et Tropis," and the other " De Amicitia Liber." Of these the former is now generally ascribed to the venerable Bede, while the latter is believed to have been composed by Petrus Blesensis, archdeacon of London, an ecclesiastic of the twelfth century.

Among his lost works we may name, 1. " Libri XII De Pvebus Gestis Gothorum," known to us only through the abridgement of Jornandes ; 2. " Liber Titulorum s. Memorialis," short abstracts, apparently, of chapters in holy writ; 3. " Exposi­tio Epistolae ad Romanes," in which the Pelagian heresy was attacked and confuted. The last two, together with the " Complexiones" and several other treatises already mentioned, are enumerated in the preface to the " De Orthographia Liber."

The first edition of the collected works of Cas­siodorus is that published at Paris in 1584, 4to., with the notes of Fornerius; the best and most complete is that published by D. Garet at Rouen, 1679, 2 vols. fol., and reprinted at Venice in 1729.

On his life we have Vita Cassiodori, prefixed to the edition of Garet; La Vie de Cassidore avec un Abrege, de PHistoire des Princes qu^il a servi et des Remarques sur ses Ouvrages, by F. D. de Sainte Marthe, Paris, 1694, 8vo.; and Leben Cassiodor''s., by De Buat, in the first volume of the transactions of the Royal Academy of Munich, p. 79. There is frequently much confusion in biographical dis­quisitions between Cassiodorus the father and Cas­siodorus the son, the former having been supposed by many to be the individual who held office under


Odoacer, and the latter not to have been born until 479. But the question seems to be set at rest by the 4th epistle of the 1st book of the Variarum, where the father and son are clearly distinguished from each other; and since the latter unquestion­ ably enjoyed a place of trust under Odoacer, whose downfall took place in 490, the young secretary, although still " adolescens,'' could not by any pos­ sibility have been born so late as 479. Some re­ marks upon this point will be found in Osann, Beitr'dge zur Gr. und Rom. Literatur GescMchte, vol. ii. p. 160, Cassel. 1839. The different digni­ ties with which he was invested are enumerated, and their nature fully explained, in Manso, Ges- chicJite des Osigoiliisclien Reichs. [W. R.]

CASSIPHONE (Kaa-ffi^vn), a daughter of Odysseus by Circe, and sister of Telegonus. After Odysseus had been restored to life by Circe, when he had been killed by Telegonus, he gave Cassi-phone in marriage to Telemachus, whom, however, she killed, because he had put to death her mother Circe. (Schol. ad Lycopfi. 795, &c.) [L. S.]

CASSIVELAUNUS, a British chief, who fought against Caesar in his second campaign against Britain, b. c. 54. He ruled over the country north of the river Tamesis (Thames), and as by his perpetual wars with his neighbours he had acquired the reputation of a great warrior, the Britons gave him the supreme command against the Romans. After the Britons and Romans had fought in several engagements, the former abstain­ ed from attacking the Romans with their whole forces, which emboldened Caesar to march into the dominions of Cassivelaunus: he crossed the Thames, though its passage had been rendered almost impossible by artificial means, and put the enemy to flight; but he continued to be much harassed by the sallies of the Britons from their forests. The Trinobantes, however, with whom Cassivelaunus had been at war, and some other tribes submitted to the Romans. Through them Caesar became acquainted with the site of the capital of Cassivelaunus, which was not far off, and surrounded by forests and marshes. Caesar forthwith made an attack upon the place and took it. Cassivelaunus escaped, but as one or two attacks which he made on the naval camp of the Romans were unsuccessful, he sued for peace, which was granted to him on condition of his pay­ ing a yearly tribute and giving hostages. (Caes. B. G. v. 11-23; Dion Cass. xl. 2, 3; Polyaen. Sir at. viii. Caes. 5 ; Beda, Ecdes. Hist. Gent. Angl. i. 2.) [L. S.]

CASSIUS. 1. C. cassius, tribune of the soldiers, b. c. 168, to whose custody the Illyrian king Gentius was entrusted by the praetor Ani-cius, when he fell into the hands of the latter in the Illyrian war. (Liv. xliv. 31.)

2. L. cassius, proconsul in Asia in b. c. 90, which province he probably received after his praetorship with the title of proconsul, as we know that he never obtained the consulship itself. In conjunction with M\ Aquillius he restored Ariobarzanes to Cappadocia, and Nicomedes to Bithynia; but when Ariobarzanes was again driven out of his kingdom by Mithridates in the following year, Cassius made preparations to carry on war against the latter. He was, however, obliged to retire before Mithridates, and fled to Pvhodes, where he was when Mithridates laid siege to the place. He afterwards fell .into .the


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