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CASTOR,

CASTINUS, a general of the emperor Hono­rius, who was sent, in a. d. 422, with an army into Spain against the Vandals. At the same time Bonifacius, another general of Honorius, was likewise engaged against the Vandals in Spain, but Castinus offended him so much by his arro­gant and imprudent conduct, that he withdrew from the war. After the death of Honorius, in a. d. 423, Castinus was believed to be supporting secretly the usurper Joannes ; and accordingly when the usurper was put to death in a. d. 425, Castinus was sent into exile. (Prosp. Aquit. Chron. Integr. p. 651, ed. Roncall.) [L. S.] CASTOR, brother of Polydeuces. [dioscuri.] CASTOR, grandson of Deiotarus. [deiota-

RUS.]

CASTOR (Kao-rcop), either a native of Rhodes, of Massilia, or of Galatia, was a Greek grammarian and rhetorician, who was surnamed 3uAop<tyitaios, and is usually believed to have lived about the time of Cicero and Julius Caesar. He wrote, ac­cording to Suidas (if we adopt the readings of Bernhardy, the last editor) : 1. 'AvaypaQr) r£v ^•a\aff(TOKpar'r](rdvT(t}v,> in two books. 2. Xpovucd dyvorf/jLara, which is also referred to by Apollodorus (ii. 1. § 3). 3. Ilepl e7ax6ip77,uc£Tcoj>, in nine books. 4. IIep2 Tretflous, in two books. 5. Ilepl tou Ne/Aou. 6. Te'x^i? p^ropiK?}, of which a portion is still ex­tant and printed in Walz's Rhetores Graeci (iii. p. 712, &c.). To these works Clinton (Fast. Hell.

iii. p. 546) adds a .great chronological work (xpo-

vitf.d or xpovoXo-yia], which is referred to several times by Eusebius (Chron. ad Ann. 989,161, 562, &c.), though it is not quite certain whether this is not the same work as the xpovi/ccc dyvo^^ara men­tioned above. He is frequently referred to as an authority in historical matters, though no historical work is specified, so that those references may al­lude to any of the above-mentioned works. (Euseb. Praep. Evang. x. 3, Chron. i. 13, p. 36; Justin Mart. Paraen. ad Graec. p. 9.) His partiality to the Romans is indicated by his surname; but in what manner he shewed this partiality is unknown, though it may have been in a work mentioned by Plutarch (Quaest. Rom. 10, 76, comp. De Is. et Os. 31), in which he compared the institutions of the Romans with those of Pythagoras. Suidas de­scribes the grammarian and rhetorician Castor as a son-in-law of the Galatian king Deiotarus (whom, however, he calls a Roman senator!), who not­withstanding afterwards put to death both Castor and his wife, because Castor had brought charges against him before Caesar,—evidently alluding to the affair in which Cicero defended Deiotarus. The Castor whom Suidas thus makes a relative of Deio­tarus, appears to be the same as the Castor men­tioned by Strabo (xii. p. 568; comp. Caes. B. C. iii. 4) who was surnamed Saocondarius, was a son-in-law of Deiotarus, and was put to death by him. But it is, to say the least, extremely doubtful whe­ther the rhetorician had any connexion with the family of Deiotarus at all. The Castor who brought Deiotarus into peril is expressly called a grandson of that king, and was yet a young man at the time (b. c. 44) when Cicero spoke for Deiotarus. (Cic. pro Deiot. 1, 10.) Now we have seen above that one of the works of Castor is referred to in the Bibliotheca of Apollodorus, who died somewhere about b. c. 140. The conclusion, therefore, must be, that the rhetorician Castor must have lived at or before the time of Apollodorus, at the latest,

CASTORION.

about b. c, 150, and can have had no connexion with the Deiotarus for whom Cicero spoke. (Com­pare Vossius, De Hist. Graec. p. 202, ed. Wester-mann; Orelli, Onomast. Tull. ii. p. 138, in both of which there is much confusion about Castor.) [L.S.] CASTOR (Kao-rwp), a distinguished citizen of Phanagoria, who had once been ill treated by Tryphon, a eunuch of Mithridates the Great. When the king, after his defeat by Pompey, came to Phanagoria, Castor avenged himself by murdering Tryphon. Pompey afterwards honour­ed him with the title of friend of the Roman peo­ple. (Appian, Mithrid. 108, 114.) [L. S.]

CASTOR, the chamberlain and confidential adviser of Septimius Severus. Being the most upright of all the courtiers, he became an object of suspicion and hatred to Caracalla, who upon as­ cending the throne immediately put him to death, having failed in an attempt, during the lifetime of Sererus, to destroy him by treachery. (Dion Cass. Ixxvi. 14, Ixxvii. 1.) [W. R.]

CASTOR, bishop of Apt, was born at Nismes about the middle of the fourth century, and married an heiress, by whom he had a daugh­ter. The family being fired with holy zeal, agreed to separate, in order that they might devote their wealth to the endowment of religious establish­ments, and their lives to seclusion and sanctity. Accordingly, they founded an abbey and a convent in Provence; the husband retired to the former, the wife and her daughter took the veil in the lat­ter. There is still extant a letter addressed by Castor to Cassianus [cassianus], soliciting infor­mation with regard to the rules observed in the monasteries of Palestine and Egypt. This request was speedily complied with, and produced the work " Institutiones Coenobiorum," dedicated to Castor, which was followed by the " Collationes Patrum," addressed to his brother, Leontius. The death of Castor took place in September, 419. We are told by Vincent St. Laurent, in the "Biographie Universelle," that at a recent period the archives of the cathedral of Apt contained a MS. life of its canonized prelate, in which were enumerated with circumstantial details all the miracles ascribed to him.

The letter above-mentioned, which is composed in a very rude and harsh style, was first discovered by Gazet, was prefixed to the "Institutiones" in his edition of Cassianus, and republished in a more correct form, from a MS. in the Royal Library at Paris, by Baluze in his edition of Salvianus and Vincentius Lirinensis, Paris, 1663, 8vo., and in the reprint at Bremen, 1688, 4to.; it is also found in the edition of Vincentius, Paris, 1669. (Schoene-mann, Bibl. Patrum Latin, v. 27.) [W. R.j

CASTOR, ANTO'NIUS, an eminent botanist at Rome in the first century after Christ, who is several times quoted and mentioned by Pliny. He enjoyed a great reputation, possessed a botanical garden of his own (which is probably the earliest on record), and lived more than a hundred years, in perfect health both of body and mind. (Pliii. H.N.xxv.5.) [W.A.G.]

CASTOR, TARCONDA'RIUS, of Galatia, with Dorylaus, gave 300 horsemen to Pompey's army in b. c. 49. (Caes. B. C. iii. 4.)

CASTORION (Kao-ToptW), of Soli, is men-tioned by Athenaeus (x. p. 454) as the author of a poem on Pan, of which he quotes a fragment: but nothing further is known about him. [L. S.]

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