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metres, that it is almost impossible to classify them systematically. A few, such as the hymn to Diana (xxxiv.), the translation from Sappho (li.), the address to Furius and Aurelius, and the two Hymenaeal ]&ys (Ixi. Ixii.), especially the former, may be considered as strictly lyrical. The Nup­tials of Peleus and Thetis, which extends to upwards of 400 Hexameter lines, is a legendary heroic poem ; the four which are numbered Ixiv.—Ixvii., although bearing little resemblance to each other either in matter or manner, fall under the head of elegies ; the Atys stands alone as a religious poem of a description quite peculiar, and the great mass of those which remain may be comprehended under the general title of epigrams, provided we employ that term in its widest acceptation, as including all short, occasional, fugitive compositions, suggested by some passing thought and by the ordinary oc­currences of every-day social life. From the nature of the case it is probable that many such effusions would be lost, and accordingly Pliny (H. A7", xxviii. 2) makes mention of verses upon love-charms of which no trace remains, and Terentianus Maurus notices some Tthypliallica. On the other hand, the Ciris and the Pervigilium Veneris have been erro­neously ascribed to our author.

Notwithstanding his remarkable versatility, it may be affirmed with absolute truth, that Catullus adorned all he touched. We admire by turns, in the lighter efforts of his muse, his unaffected ease, playful grace, vigorous simplicity, pungent wit, and slashing invective, while every lively conception is developed with such matchless felicity of expres­sion, that we may almost pronounce them perfect in their kind. The lament for his brother's death is a most touching outburst of genuine grief, while the elegy which immediately follows, on the trans­formation of Berenice's hair into a constellation, being avowedly a translation or close imitation of Callimachus, is a curious and valuable specimen of the learned stiffness and ingenious affectation of the Alexandrian school. It is impossible not to admire the lofty tone and stately energy which pervade the Peleus and Thetis; and the sudden transition from the desolation and despair of Ariadne to the tumultuous merriment of Bacchus and his revellers is one of the finest examples of contrast to be found in any language. Comparison is almost impossible between a number of objects differing essentially from each other, but perhaps the greatest of all our poet's works is the Atys, one of the most remarkable poems in the whole range of Latin literature. Rolling impetuously along in a flood of wild passion, bodied forth in the grandest imagery and the noblest diction, it breathes in every line the frantic spirit of orgiastic \v6TsMp71He^jEiej:y^\re-hemence of.-ttau(jre^k dithyramb. Many of his poems, however, are denied by gross coarseness and sensuality; and we shall not attempt to urge his own plea (cxvi.) in extenuation, although ap­proved by the solemn inanity of the younger Pliny, for the defence in reality aggravates the crime, since it indicates a secret though suppressed con­sciousness of guilt. At the same time they wefe* the vices of the age rather than of the individual. The filth of Catullus seldom springs from a prurient imagination revelling in voluptuous images, it rather proceeds from habitual impurity of expres­sion, and probably gives a fair representation of the manners and conversation of the gay society of Rome at that period.


The epithet doctus applied to our poet by Tibul-lus, Ovid, Martial, and others, has given rise to considerable discussion. It was bestowed, in all probability, in consequence of the intimate ac­quaintance with Greek literature and mythology displayed in the Atys, the Peleus, and many other pieces, which bear the strongest internal marks of being formed upon Greek models. Catullus also, it must be remembered, was the first who natural­ized many of the more beautiful species of Greek verse, and Horace can only claim the merit of having extended the number. At the same time, most of the shorter^ poems bear deep impress of original invention, are strikingly national, and have a strong flavour of the old republican rough­ness. Nay more, as a German critic has well re­marked, even when he employs foreign materials he works them up in such a manner as to give them a Roman air and character, and thus ap­proaches much more nearly to Lucretius and the ancients than to the highly polished and artificial school of Virgil and the Augustans. Hence arose the great popularity he enjoyed among his country­men, as proved by the long catalogue of testimonies from the pens of poets, historians, philosophers, men of science, and grammarians. Horace alone speaks in a somewhat contemptuous strain, but this is in a passage where he is professedly depre­ciating the older bards, towards whom he so often displays jealousy.

The poems of Catullus were first discovered about the beginning of the 14th century, at Verona, by a poet named Benvenuto Campesani. None of the MSS. at present known ascend higher than the 15th century, and all of them appear to have been derived from the same archetype. Hence, as might be expected, the text is very corrupt, and has been repeatedly interpolated.

The Editio Princeps bears the date 147'2, with­out the name of place or printer; a second appeared at Parma in 1472, and two at Venice in 1475 and 1485 respectively. In the sixteenth century Muretus and Achilles Statius, and in the seven­teenth Passeratius and Isaac Vossius, published elaborate and valuable commentaries, but their attempts to improve the text were attended with little success. The most complete of the more re­cent editions is that of Volpi (Patav. 1710), the most useful for ordinary purposes is that of F. W. Doering. (Ed. sec. Altona, 1834.) Lachmann (Berol. 1829) has exhibited the genuine text, so far as it can be ascertained, cleared in great measure of conjectural emendations.

An English metrical translation of the whole works of Catullus, accompanied by the Latin text and short notes, was published by Doctor Nott, Lond. 1795, 2 vols. 8vo.; but by far the best which has appeared in our language is that of the Hon. George Lamb, Lond. 1821, 2 vols. 12mo. There are also numerous translations into French, Italian, and German of the collected poems and of detached pieces. [W. R.]

CATULUS, a name of a family of the plebeian Lutatia or Luctatia gens, etymologically connected with the words Cato, Catus, and indicating shrewdness, sagacity, caution, or the like.

1. C. lutatius C. f. C. n. catulus, consul ib. c. 242 with A. Postumius Albinus. The first Punic war had now continued for upwards of 1 twenty-two years. Both parties were exhausted by the long struggle^ but neither of them shewed

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