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written was thereby disqualified from being one oF the attesting witnesses. " Juventius Celsus La-beoni suo salutem. Aut non intelligo de quo me consulueris, aut valde stulta est consul tatio tua : plus enim quam ridiculum est dubitare, an aliquis jure testis adhibitus sit, quoniam idem et tabulas testamenti scripserit." (Dig- 28. tit. 1. s. 27.) This question and this answer obtained such un­desirable celebrity among civilians, that silly ques­tions were called Quaestiones Domitianae, and blunt answers Responsiones Celsinae.

He wrote—1. Digestorum Libri XXXIX. after the order of the praetor's edict. Seven books of this work, viz. xxx—xxxvi, were occupied by a commentary on the Lex Julia et Papia Poppaea. This is the only one of the works of Celsus of which .pure fragments are preserved in the compi­lations of Justinian, and perhaps the only one then extant. It belongs, according to Blume's theory, to the Classis Edictalis of the Digest. 2. Epistolae, of which Ulpian (Dig. 4. tit. 4. s. 3. § 1) cites the llth book. 3. Quaestiones, which, according to a citation of Ulpian (Dig. 34. tit. 2. s. 19. § 3), consisted of at least 19 books. 4. Com-mentarii, of which the 7th book is cited by UJpian. (Dig. 34. tit. 2. s. 19. § 6.) 5. Institutiones, in 7 books, according to the testimony of the old scholiast on Juvenal (vi. 243). Gravina (Orig. Jur. Civ. lib. i. § 49, p. 68) says, that Celsus left a work De Usucapionibus, in which he refers to his father j but this statement is given without authority, and appears to be an error partly copied from Panciroli (de Claris Leg. Interp. p. 44), who cites a passage in the Digest (Dig. 41. tit. 2. s. 47) referring not to Celsus, but to Nerva films.

(Heinecc. de Juventio Celso, Op. ii. pp. 518-532; Schott. de Quaestione Domiliana, Lips. 1771 ; Hub. Greg. van Vryhoff, Observ. Jur. Civ. c. 35; Neuber, Die juristicJie Klassiker, pp. 133—145 ; Kammerer, Beitr'dge zur Gesch. u. Theorie des Rom. RecUs, i. No. 3, pp. 208—226.) [J. T. G.]

CELSUS, P. MA'RIUS, consul in a. d. 62 (Fasti), was the commander of the fifteenth legion in Pannonia, with which he was sent to join Cor-bulo in his expedition against the Parthians in 64. On the death of Nero in 68, Celsus joined Galba's party, at which time he is spoken of as consul designatus, but whether he had been nominated to the consulship by Nero or by Galba is uncertain. He was one of the ablest and most faithful of Galba's supporters ; and when the troops rebelled against the new emperor, Celsus was sent to en­deavour to propitiate the detachment of the Illyrian army which had encamped in the Vipsanian por-ticus. It was probably thought that Celsus would have more influence with this army than any one else, on account of his former connexion with it: but he was unable to quell the insurrection. The death of Galba soon followed, and Otho obtained the sovereignty. The life of Celsus was now in great danger ; the partizans of Otho loudly de­manded his execution ; but Otho, who appreciated his fidelity to his late master, not only spared his life, but admitted him to the circle of his most in­timate friends. Celsus served Otho with the same fidelity as he had the late emperor. He was sent, together with Suetonius Paullinus and Annius Gallus, in command of the army to oppose the generals of Vitellius, who were advancing into Italy. At first he and his colleagues were com­pletely successful; in the campaign on the Po? in



the neighbourhood of Placentia and Cremona, they defeated all the plans of Caecina, the general of Vitellius [caecina, No. 9] ; and it was not till the latter had been joined by Fabius Valens, and Otho had resolved, against the advice of Celsus as well as Suetonius Paullinus, to risk a battle, that the aspect of affairs was changed. Tlie battle of Bedriacum, in which Otho's army was defeated, gave Vitellius the empire; but Celsus, who had remained faithful to Otho to the last, again did not suffer for his fidelity. Vitellius allowed him to enter on the consulship on the calends of July (a. d. 69), as had been arranged from the first. (Tac. Ann. xv. 25, Hist. i. 14, 31, 39, 45, 71, 77, 87, 90, ii. 23, 33, 60.)

the latter the head of Juno Sospita, The reverse of both represents the same subject, namely, a wolf with a piece of wood in its mouth, and an eagle

CELSUS, PA'PIUS. Celsus appears as a surname of the Papia gens on several coins of the republican period, but does not occur in any an­cient writer. Two of the most remarkable of these coins are given below. On the obverse the former contains a youthful head with a trophy behind it,

standing before a burning heap of wood. This subject appears to refer to a legend related by Dionysius (i. 59) in connexion with the foundation of Lavimum by the Trojans. He tells us, that the forest in which the city was afterwards built took fire of its own accord, and that a wolf was seen bringing dry wood to feed the flame, which was fanned by an eagle with its wings; but that a fox at the same time tried to extinguish the fire by its tail, which had been dipped in water; and that it was not till after several efforts that the wolf and eagle were able to get rid of him. Now we know that the Papia gens came originally from Lanuvmm, which was also one of the chief seats of the worship of Juno Sospita. Hence it has been conjectured, that Dionysius has made a mistake in referring this legend to Lavinium : but it is not improbable that the same story may have been told, in later times, of the foundation of each city.

CELSUS, L.PUBLI'CIUS, consul under Tra­jan in a. d. 113 (Fasti), was so much esteemed by this emperor, that he had a statue erected to his honour. He was, however, a personal enemy of Hadrian's, and accordingly the latter caused him to be put to death at Baiae immediately after his accession, A. d. 117. (Dion Cass. Ixviii. 16, Ixix. 2; Spartian. Hadr. 4, 7.)

CENAEUS (K-nvcuos), a surname of Zeus, de­rived from cape Cenaeum in Euboea, on which the

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