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(Pans. x. 29. § 2.) He is said to have put an end to his life by leaping into the sea from cape Leucas, on which he had built a temple of Apollo, in order to atone for having killed his wife Procris. (Strab. x. p. 452; comp. Paus. i. 37. § 4; Hygin. Fab. 48.) [L. S.]
CEPHALUS (Ke</>a\os), a Molossian chief, who, together with another chief, Antinous, was • driven by the calumnies of Charops to take the Bide of Perseus, in self-defence, against the Romans. [antinous.] Some have inferred from the lan guage of Polybius that, after the outbreak of the war, Cephalus slew himself to avoid falling into the hands of the conquerors; but Livy tells us, that he was killed at the capture of the Molossian town of Tecmon, which he had obstinately de fended against L. Anicius, the Roman commander, b. c. 167. Polybius speaks of him as " a man of wisdom and consistency," (ppovifjLos Kal (TTdo-i/nos avQpwiros. (Polyb. xxvii. 13, xxx. 7 ; Liv. xliii. 18,22, xlv. 26.) [E. E.]
CEPHALUS (KfyaXos). 1. The son of Ly-sanias, grandson of Cephalus, and father of the orator Lysias, was a Syracusan by birth, but went to Athens at the invitation of Pericles, where he lived thirty years, till his death, taking a part in public affairs, enjoying considerable wealth, and having so high a reputation that he never had an action brought against him. He is one of the speakers in Plato's Republic.* (Lys. c. EratostJi. p. 120. 26, ed. Steph. j Plat. Repub. p. 328, b. &c.5 comp. Cic. ad Alt. iv. 16 ; Taylor's Life of Lysias,, in Reiske's Oratores Graeci.} He died at a very advanced age before b. c. 443, so that he must have settled at Athens before b. c. 473, (Clinton, Fast. Hell. b. ann. 443.) He left three sons — Polemarchus, Lysias, and Euthydemus.
2. An eminent Athenian orator and demagogue of the Colyttean demus, who flourished at and after the time of the Thirty Tyrants, in effecting whose overthrow he appears to have borne a leading part. He is placed by Clinton at B. c. 402, on the authority of Deinarclius (c. De-mostli. p. 100. 4, ed. Steph., compare p. 95. 7-8.) This date is confirmed by Demosthenes, who mentions him in connexion with Callistratus, Aristophon the Azenian, and Thrasybulus. (De Coron. p. 301.) He is summoned by Andocides to plead for him at the end of the oration De Mysteriis. (b. c. 400.) He flourished at least thirty years longer. Aeschines (who calls him 6 TraAatos e/ceTj/os 6 $QK.<av SrifjLOTtKWTaTos 7670-vevai) relates, that, on one occasion, when he was opposed to Aristophon the Azenian, the latter boasted that he had been acquitted seventy-five times of accusations against his public conduct, but Cephalus replied, that during his long public life he had never been accused, (c. Gtesiph. p. 81. 39, ed. Steph.; see the answer of Dem. de Coron. pp. 310-11.) He had a daughter named Oea, who was married to Cherops, (Suid. s. v. ; Harpocrat. s. v. Ol-fjdev.} Tzetzes (Ghil. vi. Hist. 34) confounds this Cephalus with the father of Lysias. In spite of the coincidence on the point of never having been accused, they must have been different persons, at least if the date given above for the death of Lysias's father be correct.
The Scholiast on Aristophanes asserts, that the Cephalus whom the poet mentions (Eccles. 248) as a scurrilous and low-born demagogue, but powerful in the Ecclesia, was not the same person as the orator mentioned by Demosthenes. This is perhaps a mistake, into which the Scholiast was led by the high respect with which Cephalas is referred to by Demosthenes, as well as by Aeschines and Deinarchus. The attacks of an Athenian comic poet are no certain evidence of a public man's worthlessness.
According to Suidas (s. a.), Cephalus was the first orator who composed frpooi/jna, and eiuhoyoi. A small fragment from him is preserved in the Etymologicon Magnum (s. v. 'ETrmjuia). Athe- naeus (xiii. p. 592, c.) states, that he wrote an eytccafjiLov on the celebrated courtezan Lagis (or Lai's), the mistress of Lysias. Ruhnken [Hist. Grit. Orat. Graec. § 5) supposes, that the writer mentioned by Athenaeus was a different person from the orator, but his only reason for this opinion is, that such an tyKw/Juov is unworthy of a distin guished orator. [P. S.]
CEPHEUS (K-n<peJs). 1. A son of Belus and husband of Cassiepeia, was king of Ethiopia and father of Andromeda. (Apollod. ii. 1. § 4, 4. § 3; Herod, vii. 61 ; Tac. Hist. v. 2.)
2. A son of Aleus and Neaera or Cleobule, and an Argonaut from Tegea in Arcadia, of which he was king. He had twenty sons and two daughters, and nearly all of his sons perished in an expedition which they had undertaken with Heracles. The town of Caphyae was believed to have derived its name from him. (Apollod. i. 9. § 16, ii. 7. § 3, iii. 9. § 1 ; Apollon. Rhod. i. 161; Hygin. Fab. 14; Paus. viii. 8. § 3, 23. § 3.)
3. One of the Calydonian hunters. (Apollod. i. 8. § 2.) [L. S.]
CEPHISODORUS (Krj^o-o'Scopos). 1. An Athenian comic poet of the old comedy, gained a prize b. c. 402. (Lysias, AwpoS. p. 162. 2, ed. Steph.; Suidas, s. v.; Eudoc. p. 270.) This date is confirmed by the title of one of his comedies, 'AimAcus, which evidently refers to the celebrated courtezan Lai's; and also by his being mentioned in connexion with Cratinus, Aristophanes, Callias, Diocles, Eupolis, and Hermippus. The following are the known titles of his plays : 'AvTi\a'i's, JA,ua-£o*/e«f, Tpofy&vios^Ts. A few fragments of them are preserved by Photius and Suidas (s. v. vOws i/erca), by Pollux (vi. 173, vii. 40, 87), and by Athenaeus. (iii. p. 119, d., viii. p. 345, f., xi. p. 459, a., xii. p. 553, a., xiv. p. 629, d., xv. p. 6679 d., p. 689, f., p. 701, b.)
2. An Athenian orator, a most eminent disciple of Isocrates, wrote an apology for Isocrates against Aristotle. The work against Aristotle was in four books, under the title of at npos 'Apiffro-TeAT? dvrLypafpai. (Dionys. Ep. ad Amm. p. 120. 32, Sylb.; Isoc. p. 102. 17 ; fsaeus, p. 111. 37 ; Dem. p. 120. 31 ; Athen. ii. p. 60, e., iii. p. 122, b., viii. p. 359, c.) He also attacked Plato. (Dionys. Ep. ad Pomp. p. 127, 3, Sylb.)
A writer of the same name is mentioned by the Scholiast on Aristotle (Eth. Nicom. iii. 8) as the author of a history of the Sacred War. As the disciples of Isocrates paid much attention to historical composition, Ruhnken conjectures that the orator and the historian were the same person. (Hist. Crit. Orat. Graec. § 38.) There is a Cephisodorus, a Theban, mentioned by Athenaeus (xii. p. 548, e.)