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CHAERON.

and 7ru|tz/oy, by which he was known, and the Aristophanic allusions to his weakness and his sallow complexion (Vesp. 1413, yvvaiKi eowccos frafyivr); comp. Nub. 496), it appears that he in­ jured his health by intense application to study. He attached himself to the popular party in politics, was driven into banishment by the Thirty tyrants, and returned to Athens on the restoration of demo­ cracy in b. c. 403. (Plat. Apol. p. 21, a.) From the passage just referred to it appears, that he was dead when the trial of Socrates took place in b. c. 399. (Xen. Mem. i. 2. § 48, ii. 3; Plat. Charm. p. 153, Gorff. pp. 447, 448 ; Stallb. ad Plat. Apol. p. 21, a.; Athen. v. p. 218; Aristoph. Nub. 105, 145, .157, 821, 1448, Av. 1296, 1564; Schol. ad II. cc.) [E. E.]

CHAERIPPUS, a Greek, a friend of Cicero and his brother Quintus, frequently mentioned in the letters of the former. (Ad Q. Fr. i. 1. § 4, ad Fam. xii. 22, 30, ad Alt. iv. 7, v. 4.)

CHAERIS (Xcupis). 1. A flute-player and har­per at Athens, who seems to have been more fond of hearing himself play than other people were of hearing him. He is ridiculed by Aristophanes. (Ach. 16, 831, Paoc, 916, Av. 858.) From the Scholiast on the two passages last referred to we learn, that he was attacked also by Pherecrates in the "Kypiot (Plat. Protag. p. 327) and,—for there seems no reason to suppose this a different person, —by Cratinus in the N^uejns.

2. A very ancient poet of Corcyra, mentioned by Demetrius of Phalerus (ap. Tzetz. Prolegom. ad Lycoplir. ; see Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vi. p. 361.)

3. A grammarian (father of apollonius, No. 10), who is quoted several times in the Scholia on Homer, Pindar, and Aristophanes. Pie was pro­ bably contemporary with Diodorus of Tarsus. (Fabric. Bibl. Grace, i. p. 508, ii. pp. 84, 396, iv. pp. 275, 380, vi. p. 361.) [E. E.]

CHAERON (Xatpow), a son of Apollo and Thero, the daughter of Phydas, is the mythical founder of Chaeroneia in Boeotia, (Pans. ix. 40. § 3 ; Steph. Byz. s. v. Xaiptoj/eia,; Plut. Sulla, 17.) [L. S.]

CHAERON (Xa/pwj/), or, according to another reading, CHARON, a Lacedaemonian, who ap­ pears to have belonged to the party of Nabis; for we find him at Rome in b. a 183 as the represen­ tative of those who had been banished or con­ demned to death by the Achaeans when they took Sparta in b. c. 188, and restored the exiled enemies of the tyrant. On this occasion the ob­ ject of Chaeron's mission was obtained. (Polyb. xxiv. 4; Liv. xxxix. 48 ; comp. Plut. PMlop. 17.) He was again one of the ambassadors sent to Rome in b. c. 181, to inform the senate of the recent admission of Lacedaemon for the second time into the Achaean league and of the terms of the union. (See p. 569, a.; Polyb. xxv. 2 ; Liv. xl. 2, 20.) Polybius represents him as a clever young man, but a profligate demagogue ; and accordingly we find him in the ensuing year wielding a sort of brief tyranny at Sparta, squandering the public money, and dividing lands, unjustly seized, among the lowest of the people. Apollonides and other commissioners were appointed to check these pro­ ceedings and examine the public accounts; but Chaeron had Apollonides assassinated, for which he was brought to trial by the Achaeans and cast into prison. (Polyb. xxv. 8.) [E. E.]

CHAERON (Xcu'po>j/), a man of Megalopolis,

CHALCIDIUS.

who, shortly before the birth of Alexander the Great, b. c. 356, was sent by Philip to consult the Delphic oracle about the snake which he had seen with Olympias in her chamber. (Plut. Alex. 3.) It was perhaps this same Chaeron who, in the speech (-Jrepl twv Trpbs 'AAe£. p. 214) attributed by some to Demosthenes, is mentioned as having been made tyrant of Pellene by Alexander (comp. Fa­ bric. Bibl. Grace, b. ii. ch. 26), and of whom we read in Athenaeus (xi. p. 509) as having been a pupil both of Plato and Xenocrates. He is said to have conducted himself very tyranically at Pel­ lene, banishing the chief men of the state, and giving their property and wives to their slaves. Athenaeus, in a cool and off-hand way of his own, speaks of his cruelty and oppression as the natural effect of Plato's principles in the "Republic" and the "Laws." [E. E.]

CHALCIDEUS (XaA/aSeu's), the Spartan com­ mander, with whom, in the spring and summer of b. c. 412, the year after the defeat at Syracuse, Alcibiades threw the Ionian subject allies of Athens into revolt. He had been appointed commander (evidently not high-admiral) during the previous winter in the place of Melanchridas, the high- admiral on occasion of the ill omen of an earth­ quake ; and on the news of the blockade of their ships at Peiraeeus, the Spartans, but for the per­ suasions of Alcibiades, would have kept him at home altogether. Crossing the Aegaean with only five ships, they effected the revolt first of Chios, Erythrae, and Clazomenae; then, with the Chian fleet, of Teos; and finally, of Miletus, upon which ensued the first treaty with Tissaphernes. From this time Chalcideus seems to have remained at Miletus, watched by an Athenian force at Lade. Meanwhile, the Athenians were beginning to exert themselves actively, and from the small number of Chalcideus' ships, they were able to confine him to Miletus, and cut off his communication with the disaffected towns; and before he could be joined by the high-admiral Astyochus (who was engaged at Chios and Lesbos on his first arrival in Ionia), Chalcideus was killed in a skirmish with the Athe­ nian troops at Lade in the summer of the same year (412 b. c.) in which he had left Greece. (Thuc. viii. 6, 8, 11, 17, 24.) [A. H. C.]

CHALCIDIUS, styled in MSS. Vir Claris-simus, a designation altogether indefinite, but very frequently applied to grammarians, was a Platonic philosopher, who lived probably during the sixth century of the Christian aera, although many place him as early as the fourth. He wrote an u In-terpretatio Latina partis prioris Timaei Platonici," to which is appended a voluminous and learned commentary inscribed to a certain Osius or Hosius, whom Barth and others have asserted, upon no sure grounds, to be Osius bishop of Cordova, who took a prominent part in the proceedings of the great council of Nicaea, held in a. d, 325, The writer of these annotations refers occasionally with respect to the Mosaic dispensation, and speaks, as a believer might, of the star which heralded the nativity of our Lord, but expresses himself throughout with so much ambiguity or so much caution, that he has been claimed by men of all creeds. Some have not scrupled to maintain, that he was a deacon or archdeacon of the church at Carthage; Fulgentius Planciades dedicates his tracts " Allegoria librorum Virgilii" and " De prisco Sermone" to a Chalcidius, who may be.the

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