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On this page: Chalcodon – Chalcon – Chalcosthenes – Chalinitis – Chamaeleon – Chamyne – Chaos – Charax

CHALCON.

in the Bodleian, in the libraries of the Escurial, and of Naples, in the Bibl. Laurentiana at Flo­ rence, several in the royal library at Munich and in the royal library at Paris, and that of the for­ mer Coislin library now united with the royal library at Paris. The history of Chalcocondyles was first published in Latin translations, the first of which is that of Conradus Clauserus of Zurich, Basel, 1556, fol.; the same corrected and compared with an unedited translation of Philippus Gunde- lius appended to the edition of Nicephorus Grego- ras, ibid. 1562, fol.; the same together with Latin translations of Zonaras, Nicetas, and Nicephorus Gregoras, Frankfort on-the-Main, 1568, fol. The Greek text was first published, with the transla­ tion and notes of Clauserus, and the works of Nicephorus Gregoras and Georgius Acropolita, at Geneva, 1615, fol. Fabrot perused this edition for his own, which belongs to the Paris collection of the Byzantine historians (1650, fol); he collated two MSS. of the royal library at Paris, and cor­ rected both the text and the translation of the Geneva edition; he added the history of Ducas, a glossary, and a Latin translation of the German version, by John Gaudier, called Spiegel, of a Turkish MS. work on the earlier Turkish history. The French translation of Chalcocondyles by Blaise de Vigenere, was edited and continued at first by Artus Thomas, a dull writer and an equivocal scholar, and after him by Mezerai, who continued the work down to the year 1661. This latter edition, which is in the library of the British Mu­ seum, is a useful book. None of these editions is satisfactory : the text is still susceptible of correc­ tions, and there is a chance of getting important additions, as the different MSS. have not all been collated. Besides, we want a good commentary, which will present the less difficulties, as the ma­ terials of it are already given in the excellent notes of Baron von Hammer-Purgstall to the first and second volumes of his work cited below. From these notes and other remarks of the learned Baron we learn, that he considers Chalcocondyles as a trustworthy historian, and that the reproach of credulity with which he has been charged should be confined to his geographical and histo­ rical knowledge of Western Europe. We venture to hope that the editors of the Bonn collection of the Byzantines will furnish us with such a com­ mentary. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vii. pp. 793—795; Hammer-Purgstall, Geschichte des Osmanisclien Reiches, vol. i. p. 469, ii. p. 83.) [W. P.]

CHALCODON (XaA/w5co*>). 1. A son of Abas, king of the Chalcidians in Euboea. He was slain by Amphitryon in a battle against the Thebans, and his tomb was seen as late as the time of Pau-sanias. (viii. 15. § 3 ; Eustath. ad Horn. p. 281.)

2. A Coan who wounded Heracles in a fight at night. (Apollod. ii. 7. § 1.) Theocritus (vii. 6) calls him Chalcon. There are four other mythical personages of this name. (Apollod. ii. 1. § 5, iii. 5. § 15 ; Pans. vi. 21. § 7, viii. 15. § 3; Horn. //. ii. 741, iv. 463.) [L. S.]

CHALCON (Kd\Ko>v). 1. [CHALCODON,No.2.]

2. A wealthy Myrmidon, and father of Ba-thycles. (Horn. II. xvi. 594, &c.)

3. Of Cyparissus, the shield-bearer of Antilo-chus. He was in love with the Amazon Penthe-sileia, but on hastening to her assistance he was killed by Achilles, and the Greeks nailed his body to a cross. (Eustath. ad Horn. p. 1697.) [L. S.J

681

CHARAX,

CHALCOSTHENES. 1. A statuary in "bronze, who made statues of comoedians and athletes. (Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 8. s. 19. § 27.)

2. A statuary at Athens, who made statues in unburnt clay (cruda opera., Plin. //. Ar. xxxv. 12. s. 45). The statement of Pliny, that the Cera- meicus was so called from his place of work having been in it, though incorrect, seems however to point out the great antiquity of the artist. It is possi­ ble, but not very probable, that the two passages of Pliny refer to the same person. [P. S.]

CHALINITIS (Xa\iwTw), the tamer of horses by means of the bridle (xaAiyos), a sur­name of Athena, under which she had a temple at Corinth. In order to account for the name, it is related, that she tamed Pegasus and gave him to Bellerophontes, although the general character of the goddess is sufficient to explain the surname. (Paus. ii. 4. § 1 ; comp. athena.) [L. S.]

CHAMAELEON (Xa^a/Aeow), a Peripatetic philosopher of Heracleia on the Pontus, was one of the immediate disciples of Aristotle. He wrote works on several of the ancient Greek poets, namely, Trepl 'A^a/cpeoj'Tos, irepl iSaTn^ovs, irtpl Sf/xcowSou, Trcpl ©etTTTiSoy, Trepl AiVx^Aou, irepl AaVou, Trepl n«/5apou, Trept ^TTjcrixopov. He also wrote on the Iliad, and on Comedy (Trepl Kv/Acadias). In this last work he treated, among other subjects, of the dances of comedy. (Athen. xiv. p. 628, e.) This work is quoted by Athenaeus (ix. p. 374, a.) by the title Trept tt/s dpxcuas /ca^Sias, which is also the title of a work by the Peripatetic philoso­pher Eumelus. (Meineke, as quoted below.) It would seem also that he wrote on Hesiod, for Diogenes says, that Chamaeleon accused Heracleides Ponticus of having stolen from him his work con­cerning Homer and Hesiod. (v. 6. § 92.) The above works were probably both biographical and critical. He also wrote works entitled Trepi frecoz1, and Trepl (rcrrupwv, and some moral treatises, Trepl tjfiovfjs (which was also ascribed to Theophrastus), TrporpeTnKw, and Trepl j.ieQt}s. Of all his works only a few fragments are preserved by Athenaeus and other ancient writers. (lonsius, Script. Hist. Philos. i. 17; Voss. de Hist. Graec. p. 413, ed. Westermann; Bockh, Praef. ad Find. Schol. p. ix.; Meineke, Hist. Grit. Com. Graec. p. 8.) [P. S ]

CHAMYNE (Xa/xuz/?;), a surname of Demeter in Elis, which was derived either from the earth having opened (%a^6iv) at that place to receive Pluto, or from one Chamynus, to whom the build­ ing of a temple of Demeter at Elis was ascribed. (Paus. vi. 21. § 1.) [L. S.]

CHAOS (Xaos), the vacant and infinite space which existed according to the ancient cosmogonies previous to the creation of the world (Pies. Theog. 116), and out of which the gods, men, and all things arose. A different definition of Chaos is given by Ovid (Met. i. 1, &c.), who describes it as the confused mass containing the elements of all things that were formed out of it. According to Hesiod, Chaos was the mother of Erebos and Nyx. Some of the later poets use the word Chaos in the general sense of the airy realms, of darkness, or the lower world. [L. S.]

CHARAX (Xapa|), of Pergamus, an historian and priest, who wrote two large work*, the one, in forty books, called 'EAATjj/i/ot, the other named XpovLKa, of which the sixteenth book is quoted by Stephanus Byzantinus (s. v. 'npetfs). In the former he mentions Augustus Caesar and Nero,

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