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On this page: Cheirisoppius – Cheiron

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CHEIRISOPHUS.

march at Issus in Cilicia. (Diod. xiv 10, 21; Xen. Anal. i. 4. § 3.) After the battle of Cunaxa, Clearchus sent him with others to Ariaeus to make an offer, which however was declined, of placing him on the Persian throne [p. 283, b/J. After the arrest of Clearchus and the other generals, through the treachery of Tissaphernes, Cheirisophus took an active part in encouraging the troops and in otherwise providing for the emergency, and, on the motion of Xenophon, was appointed, as being a Lacedaemonian, to lead the van of the retreating army. In this post we find him subsequently acting throughout the retreat, and cordially co­ operating with Xenophon. In fact it was only once that any difference arose between them, and that was caused by Cheirisophus having struck, in a fit of angry suspicion, an Armenian who was guiding them, and who left them in consequence of the indignity. (Diod. xiv. 27 ; Xen. Anab. iii. 2. § 33, &c., 3. §§ 3, 11, 4. §§ 38—43, 5. §§ 1—6, iv. 1. §§ 6,'l5—22, 2. § 23, &c., iii. §§ 8, 25, &c., 6. §§ 1—3.) When the Greeks' had arrived at Trapezus on the Euxine, Cheirisophus volunteered to go to his friend Anaxibius, the Spartan admiral at Byzantium, to obtain a sufficient number of ships to transport them to Europe ; but he was not successful in his application. (Diod. xiv. 30, 31 ; Xen. Anab. v. 1. § 4, vi. 1. § 16.) On his return to the army, which he found at Sinope, he was chosen commander-in-chief, Xeno­ phon having declined for himself the proffered honour on the express ground of the prior claim of a Lacedaemonian. (Anab. vi. 1. §§ 18—33.) Cheirisophus, however, was'unable to enforce sub­ mission to his authority, or to restrain the Arca­ dian and Achaean soldiers from their profligate attempt to plunder the hospitable Heracleots; and, on the sixth or seventh day from his election, these troops, who formed more than half the army, separated themselves from the rest, and de­ parted by sea under ten generals whom they had appointed. Xenophon then offered to continue the march with the remainder of the forces, under the command of Cheirisophus, but the latter de­ clined the proposal by the advice of Neon, who hoped to find vessels at Calpe furnished by Clean- der, the Spartan Harmost at Byzantium, and wished to reserve them exclusively for their own portion of the army. With the small division yet under his command, Cheirisophus arrived safely at Calpe, where he died from the effects of a medicine which he had taken for a fever. (Xen. Anab. vi. 2. $ 4, 4. § 11.) [E. E.]

CHEIRISOPPIUS (Xeipi<ro(j>os\ a statuary in wood and probably in stone. A gilt wooden statue of Apollo Agyieus, made by him, stood at Tegea, and near it *was a statue in stone of the artist himself, which was most probably also his own work. (Paus. viii. 53. § 3.) Pausanias knew nothing of his age or of his teacher; but from the way in which he mentions him in connexion with the Cretan school of Daedalus, and from his work­ing both in wood and stone, he is probably to be placed with the latest of the Daedalian sculptors, such as Dipoenus and Scyllis (about b. c. 566). Bockh considers the erection by the artist of his own statue as an indication of a later date (Corp. Inscrip. i. p. 19); but his arguments are satisfac­torily answered by Thiersch, who also shews that the reply of Hermann to Bockh, that Pausanias does not say that Cheirisophus made his own

CHEIRON.

statue, is not satisfactory. (EpocJien^ pp. 137—• 139.) Thiersch has also observed, that the name of Cheirisophus, like many other names of the early artists, is significant of skill in art (x€'Lpy oro(p6s}. Other names of the same kind are, Dae­dalus (AatSaAos) the son of Eupalamus jttos), Eucheir (Ei/xe/p), Chersiphron ( and others. Now, granting that Daedalus is no­thing more than a mythological personage, and that his name was merely symbolical, there can be no doubt that others of these artists really existed and bore these names, which were probably given to them in their infancy because they belonged to families in which art was hereditary. Thiersch quotes a parallel case in the names taken from navigation among the maritime people of Phaeacia. (Horn. Od. viii. 112, &c.)

Pausanias mentions also two shrines of Dionysus, an altar of Cora, and a temple of Apollo, but the way in which he speaks leaves it doubtful whether Cheirisophus erected these, as well as the statue of Apollo, or only the statue. [P. S.]

CHEIRON (Xe/pwz/), the wisest and justest of all the centaurs. (Horn. 77. xi. 831.) He was the instructor of Achilles, whose father Peleus was a friend and relative of Cheiron, and received at his wedding with Thetis the heavy lance which was subsequently used by Achilles. (II. xvi. 143, xix. 390.) According to Apollodorus (i. 2. § 4), Cheiron was the son of Cronus and Philyra. He lived on mount Pelion, from which he, like the other cen­taurs, was expelled by the Lapithae ; but sacrifices were offered to him there by the Magnesians un­til a very late period, and the family of the Chei-ronidae in that neighbourhood, who were distin­guished for their knowledge of medicine, were regarded as his descendants. (Plut. Sympos. iii. 1; M'uller, Orcliom. p. 249.) Cheiron himself had been instructed by Apollo and Artemis, and was renowned for his skill in hunting, medicine, music, gymnastics, and the art of prophecy. (Xen. Oyney. 1; Philostr. Her. 9, Icon. ii. 2 ; Pind. Pyih. ix. 65.) All the most distinguished heroes of Grecian story are, like Achilles, described as the pupils of Chei­ron in these arts. His friendship with Peleus, who was his grandson, is particularly celebrated. Chei­ron saved him from the hands of the other centaurs, who were on the point of killing him, and he also restored to him the sword which Acastus had con­cealed. (Apollod. iii. 13. § 3, &c.) Cheiron fur­ther informed him in what manner he might gain possession of Thetis, who was doomed to marry a mortal. He is also connected with the story of the Argonauts, whom he received kindly when they came to his residence on their voyage, for many of the heroes were his friends and pupils. (Apollon. Rhod. i. 554; Orph. Argon. 375, &c.) Heracles too was connected with him by friend­ship ; but one of the poisoned arrows of this hero was nevertheless the cause of his death, for during his struggle with the Erymanthian boar, Heracles became involved in a fight with the centaurs, who fled to Cheiron, in the neighbourhood of Malen. Heracles shot at them, and one of his arrows struck Cheiron, who, although immortal, would not live any longer, and gave his immortality to Prome­theus.- According to others, Cheiron, in looking at one of the arrows, dropped it on his foot, and wounded himself. (Ovid. Fast. v. 397 ; Hygin. Poet. Astr. ii. 38.) Zeus placed Cheiron among the stars. He had been married to Nai's or

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