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On this page: Chionides – Chionis – Chios – Chitone – Chius Aufidius – Chlaeneas – Chloe – Chloris

695

CHIOS.

Parnassus, but h; falling he was changed by Apollo into a hawk. Chione is also called Philonis. (Ov. Met. xi, 300, &c.; Hygin. Fab. 200 ; comp. Au-tolycus.) There is a third mythical personage of this name. (Serv. ad Aen. iv. 250.) [L. S.]

CHIONIDES (X«wi'5ijs and Xtovtir.s), an Athenian comic poet of the old comedy, whom Suidas (s. v.) places at the head of the poets of the old comedy (Trpwraycavtcrrriv ttjs dp%cuas K&>,aa>-Sias), adding that he exhibited eight years before the Persian war, that is, in b. c. 487. (Clinton, sub ann.) On the other hand, according to a pas­sage in the Poetic of Aristotle (c. 3), Chionides was long after Epicharmus. [epicharmus.] On the strength of this passage Meineke thinks that Chionides cannot be placed much earlier than B. c. 460 ; and in confirmation of this date he quotes from Athenaeus (xiv. p. 638? a.) a passage from a play of Chionides, the iit-w^is in which mention is made of Gnesippus, a poet contemporary with Cratinus. But we also learn from Athenaeus (I. c. and iv. p. 137, e.), that some of the ancient critics considered the liroj^oi to be spurious, and with respect to the passage of Aristotle, Ritter has brought forward very strong arguments against its genuineness. (For the discussion of the question see "Wolf, Proleg. ad Horn. p. Ixix. ; Meineke, Hist. Grit, pp. 27, 28; Grysarius, do Com. Doric. pp. 152, 153 ; Ritter, Comm. in Aristot. Poet. 3.) However this may be, the difference of some twenty years in the date of Chionides is of little consequence compared with the fact, attested by Suidas and implied by Aristotle, that Chionides was the most ancient poet of the Athenian old comedy,—not absolutely in order of time, for Susarion was long before him [susarion]j and, if the passage of Aristotle be genuine, so were Euetes, Euxenides, and Myllus ; but the first who gave the Athenian comedy that form which it re­tained down to the time of Aristophanes, and of which the old comic lyric songs of Attica and the Megaric buffoonery imported by Susarion were only the rude elements.

We have the following titles of his Comedies: —"Hpcaes (a correction for"Hpws), TLr^x^ (see above), TLepcrai ij9 Affcrvpioi. Of the last not a fragment remains : whether its title may be taken as an argument for placing Chionides about the time of the Persian war, is of course a mere matter of conjecture. The Hrcoxoi is quoted by Athenaeus (I. c., and iii. p. 191, e.), the"Hp«es by Pollux (x. 43), the Antiatticista (p. 97), and Suidas (s. v. "Aryvos). The poet's name occurs in Vitruvius. (vi. Praef.) [P. S.]

CHIONIS (Xto*'js), a Spartan, who obtained the victory at the Olympic games in four successive Olympiads (01. 28-31), four times in the stadium and thrice in the diaulos. (Paus. iii. 14. § 3, iv. 23. §§ 2, 5, vi. 13. § 1, viii. 39. § 2 : Anchionis is the same as this Chionis; see Krause, Olympia, pp. 243, 26'1.)

CHIONIS(Xiom), a statuary of Corinth, about b. c. 480, executed, in conjunction with Amyclaeus and Dyillus, the group which the Phocians dedi­ cated at Delphi. [amyclaeus.] Chionis made in it the statues of Athene and Artemis. (Paus. x. 13. § 4.) [P. S.]

CHIOS (Xios), the name of two mythical per­ sonages, each of whom is said to have given the name to the island of Chios. (Pans. vii. 4. § 6 ; Steph. Byz. s. v. Xtos.) [L. S.J

CHNODOMARIUS.

CHITONE (Xt-rcoj/r?), a surname of Artemis, who was represented as a huntress with her chiton girt up. Others derived the name from the Attic village of Chitone, or from the circumstance of the clothes in which newly-born children were dressed being sacred to her. (Callim. Hymn, in Diem. 225 ; Schol. ad Callim. Hymn, in Jov. 77.) Respecting the festival of the Chitonia celebrated to her at Chitone, see Diet, of Ant. s. v. Xtroovia. [L. S.]

CHIUS AUFIDIUS. [aufidius chius.j

CHLAENEAS (X\a«/eos), an Aetolian, was sent by his countrymen as ambassador to the Lace­ daemonians, b. c. 2J1, to excite them against Philip V. of Macedon. He is reported by Polybius as dwelling very cogently (dvcravTipfnjrws) on the oppressive encroachments of all the successive kings of Macedonia from Philip II. downwards, as well as on the sure defeat which awaited Philip from the confederacy then formed against him. Chlae- neas was opposed by the Acarnanian envoy Lycis- cus, but the Lacedaemonians were induced to join, the league of the Romans with the Aetolians arid Attains I. (Polyb. ix. 28—39, x. 41; Liv. xxvi. 24.) [E. E.]

CHLOE (XAoTj), the blooming, a surname of Demeter the protectress of the green fields, who had a sanctuary at Athens conjointly with. Ge Curotrophos. (Paus. i. 22. § 3 ; Eustath. ad Horn. p. 772.) This surname is probably alluded to when Sophocles (OecL Col. 1600) calls her ATjjUifrrjp et^Aoos. (Comp. Aristoph. Lysist, 815.) Respect­ing the festival Chloeia, see Diet, of Ant. s.v. [L. S.]

CHLORIS (Xhupts). 1. A daughter of the Theban Amphion and Niobe. According to an Argive tradition, her original name was Meliboea, and she and her brother Amyclas were the only children of Niobe that were not killed by Apollo and Artemis. But the terror of Chloris at the death of her brothers and sisters was so great, that she turned perfectly white, and was therefore called Chloris. She and her brother built the temple of Leto at Argos, which contained a statue of Chloris also. (Paus. ii. 21. § 10.) According to an Olym­pian legend, she once gained the prize in the foot­race during the festival of Hera at Olympia. (Paus. v. 16. § 3.) Apollodorus (iii. 5. § 6) and Hyginus (Fab. 10, 69) confound her with Chloris, the wife of Neleus.

2. A daughter of Amphioii, the ruler of Orcho-menos, by Persephone, the daughter of Minyas. She was the wife of Neleus, king of Pylos, and became by him the mother of Nestor, Chromius, Periclymenos, and Pero. (Horn. Od. xi. 281, &c.; Paus. x. 36. § 4, x. 29. § 2; Apollod. i. 9. § 9.)

3. The wife of Zephyrus, and the goddess oi flowers, so that she is identical with the Roman Flora, (Ov. Fast. v. 195.) There are two more mythical personages of the name of Chloris. (Hy­ gin. Fab. 14; Anton. Lib. 9.) [L. S.]

CHLORUS. [CONSTANTIUS.]

CHNODOMA'RIUS or CHONDOMA'RIUS

(Gundomar), king of the Alemanni, became con­spicuous in Roman history in A. d. 351. Magnen-tius having assumed the purple at Augustodunum, now Autun, in Gaul, the emperor Constantius made an alliance with the Alemanni and induced them to invade Gaul. Their king, Chnodomarius, consequently crossed the Rhine, defeated Decen-tius Caesar, the brother of Magnentius, destroyed many towns, and ravaged the country without op­position. In 356 Chnodomarius was involved in

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