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On this page: Chrysostomus – Chrysothemis – Chrysus – Chthonia – Chthonius – Chumnus

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CHTHONIA.

written, with, an inquiry into its authenticity, and has added very much hitherto unpublished, to­ gether with the principal ancient lives of Chrysos- tom. Montfaucon was a Benedictine monk, and was assisted by others of his order. Of separate works of Chrysostom the editions and translations are almost innumerable. Erasmus translated some of the homilies and commentaries ; and the edition of two homilies (those on 1 Cor. and 1 Thess. iv.) " Gr. Lat. interprete Joanne Cheko, Cantabrigiensi, Londini, ap. Reyner Vuolfuin. 1543" is interest­ ing as the first book printed with Greek types in England. Some of the homilies are translated in the Library of the Fathers now publishing at Ox­ ford, and those on St. Matthew have been re­ cently edited by the Rev. F. Field, Fellow of Trin." Coll. Cambridge. The number of MSS. of Chrysostom is also immense : the principal of these are in the royal library at Paris, the imperial library at Vienna (to which collection two of great value were added by Maria Theresa), and that of St. Mark at Venice. [G. E. L. C.]

CHRYSOSTOMUS, DION. [dion.]

CHRYSOTHEMIS (Xpo-ofle^s). There are four mythical females of this name (Hygin. Fab. 170, Poet. Astr. ii. 25; Diod. v. 22; Horn. //. ix. 287), and one male, a son of Carmanor, the priest of Apollo at Tarrha in Crete. He is said to have been a poet, and to have won the first victory in the Pythian games by a hymn on Apollo. (Paus. x, 7. § 2.) [L. S.]

CHRYSOTHEMIS (XpiW0e/«s) and EUTE'- LIDAS (EureAiSas), statuaries of Argos, made in bronze the statues of Damaretus and his son Theo- pompus, who were each twice victorious in the Olympic games. The victories of Demaretus were in the 65th and 66th Olympiads, and the artists of course lived at the same time (b. c. 520 and on­ wards). Pausanias describes one of the statues, and quotes the inscription, which contained the names of the artists, and which described them as Tex^ai/ etS^res e/c Trporepow, which appears to mean that, like the early artists in general, they each belonged to a family in which art was here­ ditary, (x. 6. § 2.) [P. S.]

CHRYSUS (XptWs), the fourteenth (or thir­ teenth) of the family of the Asclepiadae, was the youngest son of Nebrus, the brother of Gnosidicus, and the father of Elaphus; and lived in the sixth century b. c. in the island of Cos. During the Crissaean war, while the Amphyctions were be­ sieging the town of Crissa in Phocis, the plague broke out among their army. Having consulted the oracle of Delphi in consequence, they were directed to fetch from Cos " the young of a stag, together with gold," which was interpreted to mean Nebrus and Chrysus. They accordingly persuaded them both to join the camp, where Chrysus was the first person to mount the wall at the time of the general assault, but was at the same time mortally wounded, b. c. 591. He was buried in the hippodrome at Delphi, and worship­ ped by the inhabitants as a hero (svwyi^u}. (Thes- sali Oratio, in Hippocr. Opera, vol. iii. p. 836, &c.) [W. A. G.]

CHTHONIA (X0oyia), may mean the subter­raneous, or the goddess of the earth, that is, the protectress of the fields, whence it is used as a surname of infernal divinities, such as Hecate (Apollon. Rhod. iv. 148 ; Orph. Hymn. 35. 9), Nyx (Orph. Hymn. 2. 8), and Melinoe (Orph.

CHUMNUS.

Hymn. 70. 1), but especially of Demeter. (Herod, ii. 123; Orph. Hymn. 39. 12; Artemid. ii. 35; Apollon. Rhod. iv. 987.) Although the name, in the case of Demeter, scarcely requires explanation, yet mythology relates two stories to account for it. According to one of them, Clymenus and Chthonia, the children of Phoroneus, founded at Hermione a sanctuary of Demeter, and called her Chthonia from the name of one of the founders. (Paus. ii. 35. § 3.) According to an Argive legend, Demeter on her wanderings came to Argolis, where she was ill-received by Colontas. Chthonia, his daughter, was dissatisfied with her father's conduct, arid, when Colontas and his house were burnt by the goddess, Chthonia was carried oif by her to Her­mione, where she built a sanctuary to Demeter Chthonia, and instituted the festival of the Chtho­nia in her honour. (Paus. ii. 35. § 3 ; Diet, of Ant. s. v. X0<ma.) A third mythical personage of this name occurs in Apollodorus (iii. 15. § 1). [L. S.]

CHTHONIUS (XQ6vios) has the same meaning as Chthonia, and is therefore applied to the gods of the lower world, or the shades (Horn. II. ix. 457 ; Hesiod. Op. 435; Orph. Hymn. 17. 3, 69. 2, Ar­gon. 973), and to beings that are considered as earth-born. (Apollod. iii. 4. § 1 ; Apollon. Rhod. iv. 1398.) It is also used in the sense of "gods of the land," or "native divinities." (Apollon. Rhod. iv. 1322.) There are also several mythical personages of the name of Chthonius. (Apollod. ii. 1. § 5, iii. 4. §§ 1, 5; Ov. Met. xii. 441; Diod. v. 53 ; Paus. ix. 5. § 1; Hygin. Fab. 178.) [L.S.]

CHUMNUS, GEORGIUS, a native of Can- dace or Chandace, in the island of Crete, lived most probably during the later period of the Greek empire. He wrote a history in verse, beginning with the creation of the world and going down to the reign of David and Solomon, kings of Judaea, which is extant in MS. in the imperial library at Vienna, and was formerly in the library of John Suzzo (Susius) at Constantinople. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. xii. p. 43; Cave, Hist. Lit. vol. ii. D. p. 13.) [W. P.]

CHUMNUS, MICHAEL, a Graeco-Roman jurist and canonist, who was nomophylax, and afterwards metropolitan of Thessalonica. He is said by Pohl (ad Snares. Notit. Basil, p. 138, n. [a.]) to have lived in the 13th century, in the time of Nicephorus Blemmydas, patriarch of Con­stantinople, and to have been the author of va­rious works. He is cited by Mat. Blastares (Leunc. J. G. R. i. pp. 482, 487), and is known by a short treatise on the degrees of relation­ship (irepi tu>v ^aXffa^v [qu. jSafyicSj'] ttjs avy-yej>€i'as)? inserted in the collection of Leuncla-vius (i. p. 519). By Suarez (who erroneously identifies Chumnus and Domnus), Chumnus is mentioned among the scholiasts upon the Basilica (Notit. Basil. § 42), but this seems to be an error. (Bocking, Institutionen, Bonn, 1843, i. p. 108, n. 48 ; Heimbach, de Basil. Orig. p. 87.) [J. T. G.]

CHUMNUS, NICE'PHORUS, renowned as a statesman, a philosopher, and a divine, lived in the latter part of the 13th and in the beginning of the 14th century. He was probably a native of Constantinople, and belonged undoubtedly to one of the first families in the Greek empire. Enjoy­ing the confidence and friendship of the emperor Andronicus Palaeologus the elder, he was succes­sively appointed praefect of the Canicleus, keeper of the imperial seal-ring, and magnus stratope-

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