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On this page: Cleitomachus – Cleitophon – Cleitus – Clfjt

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CLEITUS.

81.) He sometimes translates from the .works of Cleitomachus, as for instance from the " De susti-nendis Offensionibus," which was in four books. (A cad. ii. 31.)

Cleitomachus appears to have been well known to his contemporaries at Rome, for two of his works were dedicated to illustrious Romans; one to the poet C, Lucilius, and the other to L. Censo-rmus, consul in B. c. 149. (Cic. Acad. ii. 32.)

Cleitomachus probably treated of the history of philosophy in his work on the philosophical sects (irep} cupeVecoy). (Diog. Lae'rt. ii. 9'2.)

(Fabric. Dibl. Graec. iii. p. 168 ; Brucker, Hist. Phil. i. p. 771; Orelli, Onom. Tull. ii. pp. 159,160 ; Suid. s. v KAeiTo^axos.) [A. S.]

CLEITOMACHUS (KAemWxos), a Theban athlete, whose exploits are recorded by Pausanias (vi, 15 ; comp. Suid. s.v. KAeiro'.uaxos). He won the prize at Olympia in the pancratium in 01. 141. (b.c. 216.) Aelian mentions ( V. H. iii. 30) his great temperance, and the care he took to keep himself in good condition. [E. E.]

CLFJTp'NYMUS(KA6m»i>i;juos), an historian of uncertain date. A work of his on Italy and another on Sybaris are quoted by Plutarch. (Para//. Min. 10, 21.) His Tragica, also quoted by Plu­ tarch (de Fhiv. 3), Vossius supposes to have been a collection of the legends which formed the ordi­ nary subjects of ancient tragedy; but it has been proposed to substitute ©pa;a/co;i> for TpwyiK&v in the passage in question. (Voss. de Hist, Grace, p. 418, ed. Westermann.) [E. E.J

CLEITOPHON (KKciroQw), a Rhodian au­ thor of uncertain date, to whom we find the fol­ lowing works ascribed : 1. FaAart/ca, a history of the Gauls, from which Plutarch (Parallel. Min. 15) gives a story, parallel to that of Tarpeia in Livy, of a woman of Ephesus, who betrayed the town to Brennus. 2. 'I^Stra, from the tenth book of which Plutarch (de Fluv. 25. § 3) quotes a medical recipe for the jaundice. 3. 'Ira/U^a. 4. KTitrefs, a work on the origin of different cities (Plat, de Fluv. 6. § 4), from which we obtain one theory on the ety­ mology of Lugdunum. (See Voss. de Hist. Graec. pp. 418, 419.) [E. E.]

CLEITUS (KAem>s). ]. A son of Aegyptus, murdered by Cleite. (Apollod. ii. 1. § 5.)

2. A son of Mantius, carried off by Eos on ac­count of his extraordinary beauty. (Horn. Od. xv. 250; Eustath. ad Horn. p. 1780.)

3. A son of Peisenor of Troy, slain "by Teucrus. (Horn. II. xv. 445, &c.)

4. The beloved friend of Pallene, who fought with his rival Dryas for the possession of Pallene, and conquered him by the assistance of the maiden. Sithon, the father of Pallene, wanted to punish his daughter, but she was rescued from his hands by Aphrodite, and after Sithon's death she married Cleitus, and the country of Pallene derived its name from her. (Conon, Narrat. 10; Parthen. Erot. 6 )

5. King of the Sithones in Thrace, who gave his daughter Chrysonoe or Torone in marriage to Proteus, who had come to Thrace from Egypt. (Conon, Narrat. 32.) [L. S.J

CLEITUS (KAe?Tos or KAaro's). 1. Son of Bardylis, king of Illyria. [See p. 463.] In b. c. 335, having received promise of aid from Glaucias, king of the Taulantians, he revolted from Alexan­der the Great. The latter accordingly invaded his country, and after a campaign, in which the ad.untag' of the Illyrians and their allies lay en-

-CLEITUS.

tirely in the strong positions they were enabled to take up among their hills, compelled him to flee from his dominions and take refuge in those of Glaucias. Arrian mentions a dreadful sacrifice of three boys, three girls, and three black rams, of­fered by the Illyrians before their first battle with Alexander's troops. ( ait. Anab. i. 5, 6; Plut. Alex. 11; Diod. xvii. 8.)

2. A Macedonian, surnamed Me Acts, son of Dropides, and brother to Lanice or Hellanice, nurse of Alexander the Great. He saved Alex­ander's life at the battle of Granicus, b. c. 334, cutting off with a blow of his sword the arm of Spithridates which was raised to slay the king. At the battle of Arbela, B. c. 331, he commanded, in the right wing, the body of cavalry called *Ay7}{.ia (see Polyb. v. 65, xxxi. 3); and when, in B. c. 330, the guards (ircupot) were separated into two divisions, it being considered expedient not to entrust the sole command to any one man, Hepha-estion and Cleitus were appointed to lead respec­tively the two bodies. In B. c. 328, Artabazus resigned his satrapy of Bactria, and the king gave it to Cleitus. On the eve of the day on which he \vas to set out to take possession of his government, Alexander, then at Maracanda in Sogdiana, cele­brated a festival in honour of the Dioscuri, though the day was in fact sacred to Dionysus—a circum­stance which afterwards supplied his friends with a topic of consolation to him in his remorse for the murder of Cleitus, the soothsayers declaring, that his frenzy had been caused by the god's wrath at the neglect of his festival. At the banquet an angry dispute arose, the particulars of which are variously reported by different authors. They agree, however, in stating, that Cleitus became exasperated at a comparison which was instituted between Alexander and Philip, much to the dis­paragement of the latter, and also at supposing that his own services and those of his contempora­ries were depreciated as compared with the exploits of younger men. Being heated with wine, he launched forth into language highly insolent to the king, quoting a passage from Euripides (Androm. 683, &c.) to the effect, that the soldiers win by their toil the victories of which the general reaps the glory. Alexander at length, stung to a frenzy of rage, rushed towards him, but was held back by his friends, while Cleitus also was forced from the room. Alexander, being then released, seized a spear, and sprung to the door; and Cleitus, who was returning in equal fury to brave his anger, met him, and fell dead beneath his weapon. (Diod. xvii. 21, 57; Wess. ad loc.; Plut. Alex. 1 6, 50-52 ; ait. Anab. i. 15, iii. 11, 27, iv. 8, 9; Curt. iv. 13. § 26, viii. 1; Just. xii. 6.)

3. Another of Alexander's officers, surnamed Aeu/cos to distinguish him from the above. He is noted by Athenaeus and Aelian for his pomp and luxury, and is probably the same who is mentioned by Justin among the veterans sent home to Mace­donia under Craterus in b. c. 324. (Athen. xii. p. 539, c.; Ael. V. H. ix. 3; Just. xii. 12; Arr. Anab. vii. 12.)

4. An officer who commanded the Macedonian fleet for Antipater in the Lamian war, b. c. 323, and defeated the Athenian admiral, Eetion, in two battles off the Echinades. In the distribution of provinces at Triparadeisus, b. c. 321, he ob­tained from Antipater the satrapy of Lydia; and when Antigonus was advancing to dispossess

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