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On this page: Clemens – Clementia – Cleobis – Cleobuline – Cleobulus


related between our Lord and St. Peter; and a story is given from the spurious gospel to the Egyp­tians. (Ep. ii. § 12; comp. Clem. Alex. Strom. iii. p. 465.) The genuineness of the Homily or 2nd Epistle is denied by Jerome (Catcd. c. 15) and Photius (Bibl. Cod. 113), and it is not quoted by any author earlier than Eusebius, Besides these works two other letters were preserved as Cle­ment's in the Syrian church, and published by Wetstein in the appendix to his edition of the New Testament. They are chiefly occupied by the praises of celibacy, and it therefore seems a fair ground of suspicion against them that they are not quoted before the fourth century, though, from the ascetic disposition prevalent in the North African and other Western churches, it seems unlikely that no one should ever have appealed to such an authority. Other writings are also falsely attributed to Clement. Such are the Recognitiones (a name given to the work from the Latin transla­tion of Ruffinus), which purport to contain a his­tory of Clement himself, who is represented as a convert of St. Peter, and in the course of it recog­nizes his father, whom he had lost. Of this there is a convenient edition by Gersdorf in his Biblio-theca Patrum Ecclesiasticorutn Latinorum selecta. (Leipzig and Brussels, 1837.) The collection of Apostolical Constitutions is also attributed to Cle­ment, though certainly without foundation, as the}'" are plainly a collection of the ecclesiastical rules of various times and places. (See Krabbe, Ueber den Ursprung und Inhalt der Apostol. Constitutionen, 1839.) Lastly, we may just mention the Clemen­tines^—homilies of a Judaizing tendency, and supposed by Neander (Genetische Entwickehmg, &c. p. 367) to be written by a member of the Ebio-nitish sect.

The true particulars of Clement's life are quite unknown. Tillemont (Memoires, ii. p. 147) sup­poses that he was a Jew ; but the second epistle is plainly written by a Gentile. Hence some con­nect him with Flavins Clemens who was martyred under Domitian. It is supposed, that Trajan ba­nished Clement to the Chersonese, where he suf­fered martyrdom. Various dates are given for the first Epistle. Grabe (Spic. Pair. i. p. 254) has fixed on a. D. 68, immediately after the martyrdom of St. Peter and St. Paul; while others prefer a. d. 95, during Domitian's persecution.

The Epistles were first published at Oxford by Pntric Young, the king's librarian, from the Codex Alexandrinus, to the end of which they are ap­ pended (the second only as a fragment), and which had been sent by Cyrillus Lucaris, patriarch of Constantinople, to Charles I. They were repub- lished by F. Rons, provost of Eton, in 1 650 ; by Fell, bishop of Oxford, in 16G9 ; Cotclerius, at Paris, in 1672; Ittig, at Leipzig, 1699; Wotton, at Cambridge, 1718; Galland, at Venice, 1765; Jacobson, at Oxford, in 18Ji8; and by Hefele, at Tubingen, 1839. Most of the above editions contain the works of other fathers also. Of the various texts, llefele's is the best, and has been republished in England (1843) in a convenient form, with an introduction, by Mr. Grenfell, one of the masters of Rugby. The best English trans­ lation is that of Chevallier (Cambridge, 1833), founder! on a previous translation made by Arch­ bishop Wake, 1693. [G. E. L. C.]

CLEMENS, TERF/NTIUS, a Roman jurist, contemporary with Juliunus, whom he once cites


by the expression Julianus noster. (Dig. 28. tit. 6, s. 6.) From this we infer, not that he was a pupil of Julianus, but that he belonged to the same legal school. (Compare Dig. 7. tit. 7. s. 5.) He pro­ bably therefore flourished in the time of Hadrian. It has been suggested from the agreement of date, that he was the same person as Pactumeius Clemens, and that his name in full was Ter. Pactumeius Clemens, but this is not likely. No jurist is mentioned in the Digest by the name Clemens simply, but, as if expressly for the sake of distinction, we have always either Terentius Clemens or Pactumeius Clemens. Terentius is no­ where cited in any extant fragment of any other jurist. He wrote a treatise on the famous lex Julia et Papia Poppaea, with the title " Ad Leges Libri xx.," and of this work 35 fragments (be­ longing, according to Blume's hypothesis, to the classis edictalis), are preserved in the Digest. They are explained by Heineccius in his excellent com­ mentary on the lex Julia et Papia Poppaea. [Comp. clemens pactumeius.] [J. T. G.]

CLEMENTIA, a personification of Clemency, was worshipped as a divinity at Rome, especially in the time of the emperors. She had then tem­ ples and altars, and was represented, as we still see on coins, holding a patera in her right, and a lance in her left hand. (Claudian, De Laud. StiL ii. 6, &c.; Stat. Tlieb. xii. 481, &c.; comp. Hirt, Mytliol. Bilderbuch, ii. p. 113.) [L. S.]

CLEOBIS. [biton.]

CLEOBULINE ( KAeo&wAiVrj), called also CLEOBULE^NE and CLEOBU'LE (KAeogov- \r)vi], KAeo^ouAT;), was daughter to Cleobulus of Lindus, and is said by Plutarch to have been a Corinthian by birth. From the same author we learn that her father called her Eumetis, while others gave her the name which marks her relation to Cleobulus. She is spoken of as highly distin­ guished for her moral as well as her intellectual qualities. Her skill in riddles, of which she com­ posed a number in hexameter verse, is particularly recorded, and we find ascribed to her a well-known one on the subject of the year [cleobulus], as well as that on the cupping-glass, which is quoted with praise by Aristotle. A play of Cratinus, called KAeo^ouAl^ai, and apparently having re­ ference to her, is mentioned by Athenaeus. (Pint. de Pylli. Orac. 14, Conv. vii. Sap. 3 ; Diog. Laert. i. 89 ; Menag. ad loc.; Clem. Alex. Strom. iv. 19 ; Suid. s. v. KAeogouAiVr/ ; Arist. Rhet. iii. 2. § 12 ; Athen. iv. p. 171, b., x. p. 448, c.; Casaub. ad loc.; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. ii. pp. 117, 121, 654; Mei- neke, Hist. Grit. Com. Graec. p. 277.) Cleobuline was also the name of the mother of Thales. (Diog. Laert. i. 22 ) [E. E.]

CLEOBULUS (KAetfgovAos), one of the Seven Sages, was son of Evagoras and a citizen of Lin­dus in Rhodes, for Duris seems to stand alone in stating that he was a Carian. (Diog. Laert. i. 89 ; Strab. xiv. p. 655.) He was a contemporary of Solon's, and must have lived at least as late as b. c. 560 (the date of the usurpation of Peisis-tratus), if the letter preserved in Diogenes Lae'r-tins is genuine, which purports to have been written by Cleobulus to Solon, inviting him to Lindus, as a place of refuge from the tyrant. In the same letter Lindus is mentioned as being under demo­cratic government; but Clement of Alexandria (Strom. iv. 19) calls Cleobulus king of the Lin-dians; and Plutarch (de Et a-p. Delph. 3) speaks of

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