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him as a tyrant. These statements may, however, be reconciled, by supposing him to have held, as a-Vujiu'Tjr^s-, an authority delegated by the people through election. (Arist. Polit. iii. 14, 15, ad fin. iv. 10, ed. Bekk.) Much of the philosophy of Cleobulus is said to have been derived from Egypt. He wrote also lyric poems, as well as riddles (yp''^>ovs) in verse. Diogenes Laertius also ascribes to him the inscription on the tomb of Midas, of which Homer was considered by others to have been the author (comp. Plat. Phaedr.-ip. 264), and the riddle on the year (els 6 Trarrfp, iraioes 5e 8uw5e/ca, w. r. A.), generally attributed to his daughter Cleobulme. He is said to have lived to the age of sixty, and to have been greatly distinguished for strength and beauty of person. Many of his savings are on record, and one of them at
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least,—SelV vvvoiKi^eiv tols frvyarepas, irapdtvovs u.kv Trjv riXiKiav^ rq> Se (ppove'iv ywscuKas, — shews him to have had worthier views of female educa tion than were generally prevalent; while that he acted on them is clear from the character of hia daughter. (Diog. Lae'rt. i. 8.9—93 ; Suid. s. v. KAeo§oi;Aoy ; Clem. Alex. Strom. i. 14; Fabric. BiU. Graec. ii. pp. 117, 121, 654; comp. Diet, of Ant. s. v. XeAiSo^ta.) [E. E.]
CLEOBULUS (K\e6§ov\os)t ephor with Xenares at Sparta b. c. 422-1, the second year of the peace of Nicias. To this peace they were hostile, and signalized their ephoralty by an in trigue with the Boeotians and Corinthians, with the purpose of forming anew the Lacedaemo nian league so as to include the Argives, the fear of whose hostility was the main obstacle in the way of the war-party at Sparta. (Thuc. v. 36— 38.) [A. H.C.]
CLEOCHARES (KAeoxa^s), a Greek orator of Myiieia in Bithynia, contemporary with the orator Demochares and the philosopher Arcesilas, towards the close of the third century b.c. The chief passage relating to him is in Rutilius Lupus, de Fiyur. Sentent. p. 1,3, where a list of his ora tions is given. He also wrote on rhetoric : a work in which he compared the styles of Isocrates and Demosthenes, and. said that the former resembled an athlete, the latter a soldier, is quoted by Pho- tius. (Cod. 176, p. 121, b. 9, ed. Bekker.) The remark there quoted is, however, ascribed to Philip of Macedon by Photius himself (Cod. 265, p. 493, b. 20, ed. Bekker), and by the Pseudo-Plutarch (de Vit. Jf Or. viii. 25, p. 845, c.). The obvious explanation is, that Cleochares inserted the obser vation in his work as having been made by Philip. None of his orations are extant. (Strab. xii. p. 566 ; Diog. Lae'rt. iv. 41; Ruhnken, ad Until. Lup. i. p. 5, &c., and Hist. Grit. Or. Gr. 63, pp. 185, 186 ; Westermann, Gesch. der BeredtsamJceit in Grieclicnland, §76.) [P. S.]
CLEOCRITUS (KAeo'/cptros), an Athenian, herald of the Mysteries, was one of the exiles who returned to Athens with Thrasybulus. After the battle of Munychia, b. c. 404, being remarkable for a very powerful voice, he addressed his countrymen who had fought on the side of the Thirty, calling on them to abandon the cause of the tyrants and put an end to the horrors of civil war. (Xen. Hell. ii. 4. §§ 20-22.) His person was as burly as his voice was loud, as we may gather from the joke of Aristophanes (Ran. 1433), who makes Euripides propose to fit on the slender Cinesias by way of wings to Cleocritus, and send
them up into the air together to squirt vinegar into the eyes of the Spartans. The other passage also in which Aristophanes mentions him (Av, 876), may perhaps be best explained as an allusion to his stature. (See Schol. ad loc.} [E. E.]
a son of the
CLEODEMUS MALCHUS ( ka^/aos Ma\%os-), an historian of uncertain date. He wrote a history of the Jews, to which we find reference made by Alexander Polyhistor in a pas sage quoted from the latter by Josephus. (Ant. \. 15.) The name of Malchus is said to be of the same meaning in Syriac as that of Cleodemus in Greek. [E. E.]
CLEODEMUS (KAeoS^os), the name of a physician introduced by Plutarch in his Septem Sapientum Convivium (c. 1 0, ed. Tauchn.), and said to have used cupping more frequently than any other physician of his age, and to have brought that remedy into great repute by his example, in the first century after Christ. [W. A. G.]
CLEOETAS (KAeotray), a sculptor and architect, celebrated for the skilful construction of the &<pe(ris or starting- place in the stadium at Olympia. (Pans. vi. 20. § 7.) He was the author of a bronze statue of a warrior which existed at the acropolis of Athens at the time of Pausanias. (i. 24. § 3.) As he was the son and father of an Aristocles (Visconti, Oeuvres diverses, vol. iii. p. 372)? Thiersch (Epochen d. Bild. Kunst. p. 281, &c.) and Sillig (Catal.^. 153) reckon him as one of the Sicyonian artists, among whom Aristocles, the brother of Canachus, is a conspicuous name, and assign him therefore to 01. 61. But this is a manifest error, as may be seen by comparing two passages of Pausanias (vi. 3. § 4, vi. 9. § 1) ; and it is highly probable that Cleoetas was an Athenian. His name occurs (01.86) in an inscription, from which we learn, that he was one of Phidias' assistants, that he accompanied his master to Olympias, and that thus he came to construct the the a<£e<ns. (Miiller, de Phidia, i. 13 ; Bockh, Corp. Inscript. Graec. vol. i. pp. 39, 237, 884 ; Schultz, in Jalui's Jahrbucher fur Philologie^ 1829, p. 73 ; BruniL, Artijic. liberae Graeciae iempora^ p. 23.) [L. U.]
CLEOMACPIUS (KAe^aXos). 1. It is sup. posed that there was a tragic poet of this name, contemporary with Cratinus ; but there can be little doubt that the passages of Cratinus on which this notion is founded (ap. Athen. xiv. p. 638, f.) refer to the lyric poet Gnesippus, the son of Cleo-machus, and that for rep KA€o/xa%G; and d KAeo-we ought to read to) KAeo,ua^;oy and o KAeo-(Bergk, Reliq. Com. Alt. p. 33, &c. ; Meineke, Frag. Com. Graec. ii. pp. 27 — 29 ; gnesippus.) Of Cleomachus, the father of Gnesippus, nothing is known, unless he be the same as the lyric poet mentioned below.
2. Of Magnesia, a lyric poet, was at first a boxer, but having fallen violently in love, he devoted himself to the composition of poems of a very licentious character. (Strab. xiv. p. 648 ; T rich a, de Metris, p. 34.) From the resemblance in character between his poetry and that of Gnesippus, it might be inferred that he is the same person as the father of Gnesippus ; but Strabo mentions him among the celebrated men of Magnesia in such a