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countries, he at first forbad its exportation from Egypt \ but, when the nomarchs represented to him that this measure prevented them from raising the proper amount of tribute, he permitted the expor­tation of the corn, but laid on it a heavy export duty. On another occasion, when the price of corn was ten drachmas, Cleomenes bought it up and sold it at 32 drachmas; and in other ways he interfered with the markets for his own gain. At another time he contrived to cheat his soldiers of a month's pay in the year. Alexander had entrusted to him the building of Alexandria. He gave notice to the people of Canopus, then the chief emporium of Egypt, that he must remove them to the new city. To avert such an evil they gave him a large sum of money ; but, as the building of Alexandria advanced, he again demanded of the people of Ca­nopus a large sum of money, which they could not pay, and thus he got an excuse for removing them. lie also made money out of the superstitions of the people. One of his boys having been killed by a crocodile, he ordered the crocodiles to be de­stroyed ; but, in consideration of all the money which the priests could get together for the sake of saving .their sacred animals, he revoked his order. On another occasion he sent for the priests, and informed them that the religious establishment was too expensive, and must be reduced ; they handed over to him the treasures of the temples ; and he then left them undisturbed. Alexander

was informed of these proceedings, but found it

convenient to take no notice of them; but after his return to Babylon (b. c. 323) he wrote to Cleo­menes, commanding him to erect at Alexandria a splendid monument to Ilephaestion, and promised that, if this work were zealously performed, he would overlook his misconduct.

In the distribution of Alexander's empire, after his death, Cleomenes was left in Egypt as hyparch under Ptolemy, who put him to death on the sus­ picion of his favouring Perdiccas. The effect, if not also a cause, of this act was, that Ptolemy came into possession of the treasures of Cleomenes, which amounted to 8000 talents. (Arrian, Anab. iii. 5, vii. 23; Arrian, ap.Phot. Cod. 92, p. 69, a. 34, ed. Bekker ;, Dexippus, ap. Phot. Cod. 82, p. 64, a. 34 ; Justin. xiii. 4. § 11; Q. Curt. iv. 33. § 5 ; Pseud-Aristot. Oecon. ii. 34, 40 ; Dem. c. Dio- nysiod. p. 1258 ; Paus. i. 6. § 3 ; Diod. xviii. 14; JDroysen, GescMcMe Alex. pp. 216, 580, NacJifolg. pp. 41, 128.) [P. S.]

CLEOMENES, literary. 1. A rhapsodist, who recited the Kadap^oi of Empedocles at the Olympic games. (Athen. xiv. p. 620, d.)

2. Of Rhegium, a dithyrambic poet, censured by Chionides (Athen. xiv. p. 638, e.), and by Aristophanes, according to the Scholiast. (Nuhes, 332, 333.) He seems to have been an erotic writer, since Epicrates mentions him in connexion with Sappho, Meletus, and Lamynthius. (Athen. xiv. p. 605, e.) The allusions of other comedians to him fix his date in the latter part of the fifth century b.-c. One of his poems was entitled •Mdeayer. (Athen. ix. p. 402, a.)

3. A cynic philosopher, the disciple of Metroclcs, wrote a work on education (TlaiSa'yuytKos), which is quoted by Diogenes Laertius (vi. 75, 95).

4. A commentator on Homer, and Hesiod. (Clem. Alex. Strain, i. p. 129.) Perhaps he was the same as the philosopher. [P. S.]

CLEOMENES (KAeo^eV???), the name of a


physician introduced by Plutarch in his Si/mponiacon (vi. 8. § 5, ed. Tauchn.) as giving his opinion on the nature and cause of the disease called bulimia^ in the first century after Christ. [ W. A. G.]

CLEOMENES, a sculptor mentioned only by Pliny (xxxvi. 4. § 10) as the author of a group of the Thespiades, or Muses, which was placed by Asinius Pollio in his buildings at Rome, perhaps the library on the Palatine hill. This artist, who does not appear to have enjoyed great celebrity with the ancients, is particularly interesting to us, because one of the most exquisite statues, the Venus de Medici, bears his name in the following inscription on the pedestal:



This inscription, which has been undeservedly considered as a modern imposition, especially by Florentine critics, who would fain have claimed a greater master for their admired statue, indicates both the father and the native town of Cleomenes ; and the letter H. gives likewise an external proof of what we should have guessed from the character of the work itself, that he was subsequent to b. c. 403. But we may arrive still nearer at his age. Mummius brought the above-mentioned group of the Muses from Thespiae to Rome ; and Cleomenes must therefore have lived previously to b. c. 146, the date of the destruction of Corinth. The beau­tiful statue of Venus is evidently an imitation of the Cnidian statue of Praxiteles; and MUllcr's

opinion is very probable, that Cleomenes tried to revive at Athens the style of this great artist. Our artist would, according to this supposition, have lived between b.c. 363 (the age of Praxiteles) and b. c. 146.

Now, there is another Cleomcncs, the author of a much admired but rather lifeless statue in the Louvre, which commonly bears the name of Ger-manicus, though without the slightest foundation. It represents a Roman orator, with the right hand lifted, and, as the attribute of a turtle at the foot shews, in the habit of Mercury. There the arti&t calls himself





He was therefore distinct from the son of Apollo-dorus, but probably his son ; for the name of Cleo­­menes is so very rare at Athens, that we can hardly suppose another Cleomenes to have been his father; and nothing was more common with ancient artists than that the son followed the father's profession. But it is quite improbable that an Athenian sculptor should have made the statue of a Roman in the form of a god before the wars against Macedonia had brought the Roman armies into Greece. The younger Cleomenes must therefore have exercised his art subsequently to b. c. 200, probably subsequently to the battle of Cynoscephalae. We may therefore place the father about b. c. 220.

Another work is also inscribed with the name of Cleomenes, namely, a basso-relievo at Florence, of very good workmanship, with the story of Alceste, bearing the inscription KAEOMENH2 EIIOIEI. But we are not able to decide whether it is to be referred to the father, or to the son, or to a third and more recent artist, whose name is published by Raoul-Rochette. (Monuntcus incdits

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