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CODRATUS.

Cardinal Francesco Barberini. This work begins 1 with an account of the origin of Constantinople (Byzantium) ; after this the author treats in dif­ferent chapters on the size and situation of that city; on the province of Adiabene ( ! ) ; on the statues, public buildings of Constantinople, and the like subjects, in an extensive chapter; on the church of St. Sophia; and the work finishes with a short chronicle from the beginning of the world down to the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks. If Codinus wrote this latter fact himself, he died of course after 1453; but the singular digression respecting the province of Adiabene is of itself a sufficient proof that an unknown hand has made some additions to it. This work of Codinus is likewise of great interest. The student, however, who should wish to make himself ac­quainted with that interesting subject, the antiqui­ties of Constantinople, should begin with Petrus Gyllius, " Antiquitates Constantmopolitanae," of which a very good English translation was pub­lished by John Ball, London, 1729, 8vo., to which is added a " Description of the City of Constanti­nople as it stood in the reign of Arcadius and Honorius" (translated from " Notitia Utriusque Imperii"), with the notes of Pancirola. After this the student will peruse with profit Du Cange's celebrated work, " Constantinopolis Christiana," where he will find numerous observations referring to Codinus.

III. A Greek translation of " Missa Scti Gre-gorii, papae," first published by Morellus, Paris, 1595, 8vo., and also contained in the second volume of " Bibl. Patrum Max."

(Lambecius, Vita Coding in his edition of Co­ dinus' Antiquities of Constantinople ; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. xii. 57, &c.) [W. P.J

CODOMANNUS. [dareius III.]

CODON. Suarez (Notit. Basil. § 27) states, that portions of the Paratitla of Codon, copied from a Cretan manuscript, were in the library of Ant. Augustinus. Paratitla are additions made by com­ mentators, explaining difficulties and filling up de­ ficiencies in one title of the authorized collections of civil law by summaries of parallel passages in other titles. (Heimbach, Anecdota, i. p. xviii.) Several books of Paratitla are known still to exist in manuscript in various libraries. (Pohl, ad Sua- res. Notit. Basil, p. 101, n. 77.) Perhaps Codon is a fictitious name assumed by some commentator on the Code of Justinian, for such names were com­ mon among the Graeco-Roman jurists. Thus, Enantiophanes is the name given to the author (probably Photius) of a treatise Trepl svavriofyavtov (apparent legal inconsistencies). So the Paratitla of Tipucitus are perhaps the work of an author who took the name Tipucitus (TiirovKeiros} from explain­ ing what (ti) the law is, and where it is to be found (irov /mrcu) ; though Heimbach (Anecdota, i. p. 220) refers the name to the book, not the author. Under baphius we have mentioned a similar con­ jecture of Suarez; but Heimbach (I. c.) thinks, that Baphius is a mere fabrication of Nic. Comnenus Papadopoli, which he was induced to hazard under cover of the false reading Ba^n'ou for $>a€iov in a passage of the Basilica referring to the lex Fabia. (Basil, vii. p. 787.) [J.T.G.]

CODRATUS (KoSparos), an ancient physician, saint, and martyr, who was born at Corinth in the third century after Christ. His parents, who were Christians and persons of rank and wealth, died

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COELESTINUS.

while he was quite young. When he was grown up, he applied himself tc the study and practice of medicine, and also took every opportunity of en­ deavouring to convert his fellow-citizens to Chris­ tianity. He was put to death, together with several other Christians, about the year 258, at the command of Jason, the governor of Greece at that time; and there is an interesting account of his martyrdom in the Acta Sanctorum., Mart. vol. ii. p. 5. His memory is observed on the 10th of March both by the Roman and Greek Churches. (Acta Sanct. I. c.; Menolog. Graec. vol. iii. p. 11; Bzovius, Nomenclator Sanctorum Professione Medi- corum; Carpzovius, De Medicis ab Ecclesia pro Sanctis halitis.) [W. A. G.]

CODRUS (Ko'Spos), the son of Melanthus, and king of Athens, where he reigned, according to tradition, some time after the conquest of the Pelo­ ponnesus by the Dorians, about b. c. 1068. Once when the Dorians invaded Attica from Pelo­ ponnesus, they were told by an oracle, that they should be victorious if the life of the Attic king was spared. The Dorians accordingly took the greatest precautions not to kill the king. But when Codrus was informed of the oracle, he re­ solved to sacrifice himself, and thus to deliver his country. In the disguise of a common man, he entered the camp of the enemy. There he began quarrelling with the soldiers, and was slain in the struggle. When the Dorians discovered the death of the Attic king, they abstained from further hostilities, and returned home. Tradition adds, that as no one was thought worthy to succeed such a high-minded and patriotic king, the kingly dig­ nity was abolished, and a responsible archon for life was appointed instead. In our accounts of this transaction there are points which justify the be­ lief, that when, after the death of Codrus, quarrels arose among his sons about the succession, the eupatrids availed themselves of the opportunity for stripping the chief magistrate of as much of his power as they could, and that they succeeded in altogether abolishing the kingly dignity, for which that of a responsible archon was instituted. Medon accordingly succeeded his father as archon, and his brothers emigrated to Asia Minor, where they founded several of the Ionian colonies. (Herod, v. 76 ; Lycurg. c. Leocr. 20 ; Veil. Pat. i. 2; Justin, ii. 6, &c. ; Paus. iv. 5. § 4, vii. 2; Strab. xiv. p. 633, &c.) [L. S.]

CODRUS, a Roman poet, a contemporary of Virgil, who ridicules him for his vanity. (Eclog. vii. 22, x. 10.) According to Servius, Codrus had been mentioned also by Valgius in his elegies* Weichert (Poet. Led. Reliq. p. 407) conjectures, that this Codrus is the same as the Jarbitas, the imitator of Timagenes, who is ridiculed by Horace (Epist. i. 19. 15) ; whereas Bergk believes, that Codrus in Virgil and Valgius is a fictitious name, and is meant for the poet Cornificius. (Classical Museum., vol. i. p. 278.) Juvenal (i. 1) also speaks of a wretched poet of the name of Codrus (the Scholiast calls him Cordus), who wrote a tragedy " Theseus." But it is generally believed, that in all the above cases Codrus is altogether a fictitious name, and that it is applied by the Roman poets to those poetasters who annoyed other people by reading their productions to them. [L. S.]

COELESTINUS, a Campanian by birth, the successor of Pope Bonifacius I., was ordained bishop of Rome on the 10th of September, a, d,

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