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CRASSUS

It has been conjectured that his praenomen was Publius, and that he was identical with No. 18.

28. P. licinius crassus, was praetor in b. c. 57, and favoured Cicero's return from exile. (Cic. post. Redit. in Sen. 9.) Orelli (Onom. Tull.) thinks that the name affords evidence of the spu-riousness of the speech in which it is found.

29. P. crassus junianus, one of the gens Junia, adopted by some licinius crassus. His name appears on coins. (Spanh. ii. pp. 104, 179; Eckhel. v. pp. 153, 154, 233.) He was tribune cf the plebs in B. c. 51, and a friend of Cicero. (Cic. ad Qu. ft. iii. 8. § 3.) In the civil war he fought for Pompey, and served with the title legatus propraetore under Metellus Scipio in Africa, where, after the battle of Thapsus, he made his escape to the sea. (Pint. Cato Maj. 70, fin.)

30. M. LiciN7ius crassus mucianus. [Mu-

CIANUS.]

The annexed coin of the Licinia gens is the one referred to un p. 879, b., and supposed to have been struck by P. Crassus [No. 20], as it bears the legend P. (indistinct in the cut) crassus M. F. The obverse represents the head of Venus, and the reverse a man holding a horse, which is supposed to refer to the ceremony of the public inspection of the horses of the equites by the censors. (Diet, of Ant. s. v. Equites.) [J. T. G.]

CRASSUS, OCTACI'LIUS. 1. M'. octaci-lius crassus, was consul in b.c. 263 with M'. Valerias Maximus, and crossed with a numerous army over to Sicily. After having induced many of the Sicilian towns to surrender, the consuls ad­vanced against Hiero of Syracuse. The king, in compliance with.the desire of his people, concluded a peace, which the Romans gladly accepted, and in which he gave up to them the towns they had taken, delivered up the Roman prisoners, and paid a contribution of 200 talents. He thus became the ally of Rome. In b. c. 246 Crassus was consul a second time with M. Fabius Licinus, and carried on the war against the Carthaginians, though no­thing of any consequence seems to have been ac­complished. (Polyb. i. 16 <&c.; Zonar. viii. 9; Eutrop. ii. 10 ; Oros. iv. 7 ; Gellius, x. 6.)

2. T. octacilius crassus, apparently a bro­ ther of the former, was consul in b. c. 261, with L. Valerius Flaccus, and continued the operations in Sicily against the Carthaginians after the taking of Agrigentum ; but nothing is known to have been accomplished during his consulship. (Polyb. i. 20.) [L. S.]

CRASSUS, PAPI'RIUS. 1. M'. papirius crassus was consul in b. c. 441 with C. Furius Pacilus. (Liv. iv. 12 ; Diod. xii. 35.)

2. L. papirius crassus was consul in b. c. 436 with M. Cornelius Maluginensis. They led armies against Veii and Falerii, but as no enemy appeared in the field, the Romans contented them­selves with plundering and ravaging the open coun­try. (Liv. iv. 21 ; Diod. xii. 41.) Crassus was censor in b, c. 424.

CRATERUS.

3. C. papirius crassus was consul in b. c. 430 with L. Julius Julus. These consuls disco­vered, by treacherous means, that the tribunes of the people intended to bring forward a bill on the aestimatio multarum, and in order to anticipate the favour which the tribunes thereby were likely to gain with the people, the consuls themselves pro­posed and carried the law. (Liv. iv. 30 ; Cic. de Re Pull, ii. 35 ; Diod. xii. 72.)

4. C. papirius crassus was consular tribune in b. c. 384. (Liv.vi. 18.)

5. sp. papirius crassus, consular tribune in b. c. 382. He and L. Papirius Crassus, one of his colleagues, led an army against Velitrae, and fought with success against that town and its allies, the Praenestines. (Liv. vi. 22.)

6. L. papirius crassus, consular tribune in b. c. 382, and again in b. c. 376. (Livy, vi. 22 ; Diod. xv. 71.)

7. L. papirius crassus, consular tribune in b. c. 368. (Liv. vi. 38 ; Diod. xv. 78.)

8. L. papirius crassus was made dictator in b. c. 340 while holding the office of praetor, in order to conduct the war against the revolted Latins, since, the consul Manlius was ill at the time. Crassus marched against Antium, but was encamped in its neighbourhood for some months without accomplishing anything. In B. c. 336 he was made consul with K. Duilius, and carried on a war against the Ausonians of Gales. In 330 he was consul a second time, and carried on a war against the inhabitants of Privernum. They were commanded by Vitruvius Flaccus who was con­quered by the Romans without much difficulty. In 325 Crassus was magister equitum to the dicta­tor L. Papirius Cursor, and in 318 he was in­vested with the censorship. (Liv. viii. 12, 16, 29 ; Diod. xvii. 29, 82 ; Cic. ad Fain. ix. 21.)

9. M. papirius crassus, apparently a brother of the preceding, was appointed dictator in b. c. 332 to conduct the Avar against the Gauls, who were then believed to be invading the Roman do­minion ; but the report proved to be unfounded* (Liv. viii. 17.)

10. L. papirius crassus was magister equi­ tum to the dictator T. Manlius Torquatus, in b. c. 320. (Fast. Cap.) [L. S.]

CRASTINUS, one of Caesar's veterans, who had been the primipilus in the tenth legion in the year before the battle of Pharsalus, and who served as a volunteer in the campaign against Pompey. It was he who commenced the battle of Pharsalus, b. c. 48, saying that, whether he survived or fell, Caesar should be indebted to him : he died fight­ing bravely in the foremost line. (Caes. B. C. iii. 91, 92; Flor. iv. 2. §46; Lucan, vii. 471, &c.; Appian, B. C. ii. 82 ; Pint. Pomp. 71, Caes. 44.)

CRATAEIS (Kparaas), according to several traditions, the mother of Scylla. (Horn. Od. xii. 124 ; Ov. Met. xiii. 749 ; Hesych. s.v.; Plin. //. N. iii. 10.) [L. S.]

CRATERUS (Kparepos), one of the most dis­tinguished generals of Alexander the Great, was a son of Alexander of Orestis, a district in Mace­donia, and a brother of Amphoterus. When Alexander the Great set out on his Asiatic ex­pedition, Craterus commanded the ir^raipoi. Subsequently we find him commanding a detach­ment of cavalry, as in the battle of Arbela and in the Indian campaign; but it seems that he had no permanent office, and that Alexander employed

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