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the same authority, that he lived a temperate life as long as his connexion with his great master lasted. (Xen. Mem. i. 2. §§ 12—18, 39.) From a fragment of Critias himself (ap. Plut. Ale. 33) it appears that he was mainly instrumental in pro­curing the recall of Alcibiades from banishment. At the time of the murder of the generals who had been victorious at Arginusae, b. c. 406, we find him in Thessaly fomenting a sedition of the Pe-nestae against their lords, and endeavouring to set up democracy in conjunction with one Prometheus, which has been supposed by some to be a surname of Jason of Pherae. According to Xenophon, he had been banished by a sentence of the people, and this it was which afterwards made him so rancorous in his tyranny. (Xen. Mem. i. 2. § 24, HelL ii. 3. §§ 15, 36 ; Schn. ad loc.} On his return to Athens he became leader of the oligar­chical party, and was chosen to be one of the body called Ephori, probably not a public and lega' office, but one instituted among themselves by the oligarchs for the better promotion of their ends. (Lys- c. Erat. p. 124 ; Thirl wall's Greece, vol. iv. p. 160; Hermann, Polit. Ant, $ 168.) He was one of the 30 tyrants established in b c. 404, was conspicuous above all his colleagues for rapacity and cruelty, sparing not even Socrates himself, and took the lead in the prosecution of Theramenes when he set himself against the continuance of the reign of terror. He was slain at the battle of Munychia in the same "year, fighting against Thrasybulus and the exiles. (Xen. HelL ii. 3. §§ 2, 15—56, 4. §§ 1—19, Mem. i. 2. $$ 12—38; Diod. xiv. 4; Plat. Apol. p. 32, c •, Cic. Tusc. Quaest. i. 40.)

Cicero tells us (De Orat. ii. 22), that some speeches of Critias were still extant in his time, and speaks of them as marked by the vigour of matter which, distinguished those of Pericles and by a greater copiousness of style A work of his on politics is also frequently referred to by several writers (Athen. xi. p. 463, f; Ael. V. H. x. 13, 17; Clem. Alex, Strom. vi. 2; corap. Plat. Tim. p. 20); some fragments of his elegies are still extant, and he is supposed by some to have been the au­ thor of the Peiritholis and the Sisyphus (a satyric drama), which are commonly reckoned among the lost plays of Euripides; a tragedy named u Ata- lanta" is likewise ascribed to him. (Athen. 1. p. 28, b, x. p. 432, e, xi. p. 496, b; Fabric. Bill. Graec. ii. pp. 252, 254, 294.) As we might sup­ pose a priori from his character, he was but a dabbler and a dilettante in philosophy, a circum­ stance which Plato, with his delicate satire, by no means loses sight of (see Protag. p. 336), inso­ much that it was said of him (Schol. ad Plat. Tim. p. 20), that he was iSicyTTjs \^v ev (piXoaotpois, (f>t\6ao(f)os 5e ez/ iSicorcus, " a lord among wits, and a wit among lords." The remains of his poems have been edited separately by N^ Bach, Leipzig, 1827. [E. E.]

CRITIAS, a very celebrated Athenian artist, whose workmanship belongs to the more ancient school, the description of which by Lucian (Rhetor. Praecept. c. 9) bears an exact resemblance to the statues of Aegina. For this reason, and because the common reading of Pliny (H. N. xxxiv. 19, in.), " Critias Nestocles," is manifestly corrupt, and the correction of H. Junius, " Nesiotes," is borne out by the Bamberg manuscript, Critias was considered by Miiller (Aegin. p. 102) to have


been a citizen of Aegina. But as Pausanias (vi. 3. § 2) calls him 'Am/cos, Thiersch (Epoch, p. 129) assigns his origin to one of the little islands near the coast of Attica, and Miiller ( Wien. Jahrb. xxxviii. p. 276) to the island of Lemnos, where the Athe­nians established a cleruchia. All these theories were overthrown by two inscriptions found near the Acropolis, one of which belongs to a statue of Epicharinus, who had won a prize running in arms, mentioned by Pausanias (i. 23. § 11), and should probably be restored thus :

Kptnos ical

From this we learn, first, that the artist's name was Critics, not Critias ; then that Nesiotes in Pliny's text is a proper name. This Nesiotes was probably so far the assistant of the greater master, that he superintended the execution in bronze of the models of Critios. The most celebrated of their works were, the statues of Harmodius and Aristogeiton on the Acropolis. These were erected b. c. 477. (Marm. Oxon. Epoch. Iv.) Critias was, therefore, probably older than Phidias, but lived as late as b. c. 444, to see the greatness of his rival. (Plin. I e.)

(Lucian, Philosoph. 18; Pans. i. 8. § 3 ; Ross, Kunstblatt, 1840, No. 11.) [L.U.I

CRITOBULUS (KptrcteouAos), son of Criton, and a disciple of Socrates. He did not however profit much by his master's instructions, if we may trust the testimony of Aeschines the Socratic (ap. Athen. v. p. 220, a; comp. Casaub. ad loc.\ by whom he is represented as destitute of refinement and sordid in his mode of living. (Comp. Plat. PJiaed. p. 57 ; Xen. Mem. i. 3. § 8, ii. 6 ; Athen. v. p. 188, d ; Diog. Laert. ii. 121.) [E. E.]

CRITOBULUS (KpmteouAos), a citizen of Lampsacus, who appeared at Athens as the repre­sentative of Cersobleptes in b. c. 346, when the treaty of peace between Philip and the Athenians was about to be ratified, and claimed to be ad­mitted to take the oath on behalf of the Thracian king as one of the allies of Athens. A decree to this effect was passed by the assembly in spite of a strong opposition, as Aeschines asserts, on the part of Demosthenes. Yet when the treaty was actually ratified before the board of generals, Cer­sobleptes was excluded from it. Demosthenes and Aeschines accuse one another of thus having nulli­fied the decree ; while, according to Philip's ac­count, Critobulus was prevented by the generals from taking the oath. (Aesch. de Fals. Leg. p. 39, Ep. Phil, ad Ath. p. 160 ; Dem. de Fals. Leg. p. 395 ; Thirlwall's Greece, vol. v. p. 356.) [E. E.]

CRITOBULUS (KpiTo'gouAos), a Greek sur­ geon, said by Pliny (//. N. vii. 37) to have ex­ tracted an arrow from the eye of Philip the son of Amyntas, king of Macedonia, (probably at the siege of Methone, b. c. 353) so skilfully that, though he could not save his sight, he prevented his face from being disfigured. He is also men­ tioned by Quintus Curtius (ix. 5) as having been the person who extracted, the weapon from the wound which Alexander received in storming the principal fortress of the Mallians, b. c. 32 (i. [critodemus.] [W. A. G.]

CRITODEMUS (Kpn-o'Huos), a Greek sur­geon of the family of the Asclepiadae, and a native of the island of' Cos, who is said bv

? **

Arrian (vi. 11) to have been the person who extracted the weapon from the wound which

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