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On this page: Cumanus – Cunctator – Cupido – Cura – Curetes – Curia Gens – Curiatia Gens – Curiatius – Curiatius Maternus – Curio

901

CURIA'TIUS,

ricum, about b. c. 60, to whom two of Cicero's letters are addressed (ad Fam. xiii. 41, 42), was probably one of the Terentii.

CUMANUS, VENTI'DIUS. [felix, an-

TONIUS.]

CUNCTATOR, a surname given to Q. Fabius Maximus, who fought against Hannibal.

CUPIDO was, like Amor and Voluptas, a modification of the Greek Eros, whose worship was carried to Rome from Greece. (Cic. ap. Lactant.

1. 20. 14; Plaut. Cure. i. 1, 3; see eros.) [L. S.J

C. CUPIE'NNIUS. 1. A person to whom

Cicero wrote a letter in b. c. 44, entreating him to

interest himself in the affairs of the inhabitants of

Buthrotum, and reminding him of the friendship

which had existed between the father of Cupien-

nius and Cicero himself. (Cic. ad Att. xvi. 16, d.)

2. The Cupiennius attacked by Horace (Sat. i.

2. 36) on account of his adulterous intercourse with Roman matrons, is said by the Scholiast on Plorace to have been C. Cupiennius Libo of Cuma, a friend of Augustus.

There are some coins extant bearing the names of L. Cupiennius and C. Cupiennius ; but who these persons were, is not known. (Eckhel, v. p. 199.)

CURA, the personification of Care, respecting whose connexion with man an ingenious allegorical story is related by Hyginus. (Fab. 220.) [L. S.]

CURETES. [zeus.]

CURIA GENS, plebeian, is mentioned for the first time in the beginning of the third century B. c., when it was rendered illustrious by M\ Cu- rius Dentatus. [dentatus.] This is the only cognomen which occurs in the gens : for the other members of it, see cubius. [L. S.]

CURIATIA GENS. The existence of a pa­ trician gens of this name is attested by Livy (i. 30, comp. Dionys. iii. 30), who expressly mentions the Curiatii among the noble Alban gentes, which, after the destruction of Alba, were transplanted to Rome, and there received among the Patres. This opinion is not contradicted by the fact that in B. c. 401 and 138 we meet with Curiatii who were tri­ bunes of the people and consequently plebeians, for this phenomenon may be accounted for here, as in other cases, by the supposition that the plebeian Curiatii were the descendants of freedmen of the patrician Curiatii, or that some members of the patrician gens had gone over to the plebeians. The Alban origin of the Curiatii is also stated in the story about the three Curiatii who in the reign of Tullus Hostilius fought with the three Roman brothers, the Horatii, and were conquered by the cunning and bravery of one of the Horatii., though some writers described the Curiatii as Romans and the Horatii as Albans. (Liv. i. 24, &c. ; Dionys. iii. 11, &c.; Pint. Par all. Gr. et. Rom. 16; Fior. i. 3; Aurel. Vict. de Vir. III. 4 ; Zonar. vii. 6; Niebuhr, Hist, of Rome^ i. p< 348; comp. horatius.) No members of the patrician Curiatia gens, so far as our records go, rose to any eminence at Rome, and there are but few whose names have come down to us. The only cognomen of the gens in the times of the republic is fistus. For the plebeians who are mentioned without a cognomen, see curiatius. [L. S.]

CURIATIUS. 1. P. curiatius, tribune of the people in b. c. 401. The college of tribunes in that year laboured under great unpopularity, as tv/o of them had been appointed by the co-optation

CURIO.

of the college under the influence of the patricians. P. Curiatius and two of his colleagues, M. Metilius and M. Minucius, endeavoured to counteract the unpopularity and turn the hatred of the people against the patricians by bringing a charge against Sergius and Virginius, two military tribunes of the year previous, whom they declared to be the au­thors of all the mischief and the cause of the peo­ple's sufferings. Both the accused were condemned to pay a heavy fine, and the tribunes of the people soon after brought forward an agrarian law, and prevented the tribute for the maintenance of the armies being levied from the plebeians. (Liv. v. 11, 12.)

2. C. curiatius, tribune of the people in b. c. 138, is characterised by Cicero (de Leg. iii. 9) as a homo infimus. He caused the consuls of the year, P. Cornelius Scipio Nasica (whom he nick­named Serapio) and D. Junius Brutus to be thrown into prison for the severity with which they pro­ceeded in levying fresh troops, and for their disre­gard to the privilege of the tribunes to exempt certain persons from military service. (Liv. JUpiL 55 ; Val. Max. iii. 7. § 3.)

There are extant several coins, on which we read C. cur. trige. or C. cur. F., and which may belong to this tribune or a son of his ; but it is just as probable that they belonged to some patrician C. Curiatius, about whom history fur­ nishes no information. (Eckhel, v. p. 199, &c.) One C. Scaevius Curiatius, who lived in the early period of the empire, is mentioned in an inscrip­ tion in Orelli (No. 4046) as duumvir in the muni- cipium of Veii. [L. S.]

CURIATIUS MATERNUS. [maternus.]

CURIO, the name of a family of the Scribonia gens.

1. C. scribonius curio, was appointed curio maximus in b. c. 174, in the place of C. Mainilius Vitulus, who had been carried off by the plague. (Liv. xli. 26.)

2. C. scribonius curio, praetor in b. c. 121, the year of C. Gracchus's death, was one of the most distinguished orators of his time. Cicero mentions one of his orations for Ser. Fulvius, who was accused of incest, and states, that when a young man he thought this oration by far the best of all extant orations; but he adds, that afterwards the speeches of Curio fell almost into oblivion. He was a contemporary of C. Julius Caesar Strabo, Cotta, and Antonius, and against the last of these he once spoke in the court of the centumviri for the brothers Cossus. (Cic. Brut. 32, de Invent, i. 43, de Orat. ii. 23, 33 ; Schol. Bob. in Argwm. Oral, in Clod, et Curion.; Pseud.-Cic. ad Herenn. ii. 20; Plin. H. N. vii. 41.)

3. C. scribonius curio, a son of the former. In b. c. 100, when the seditious tribune L. Appu-leius Saturninus was murdered, Curio was with the consuls. In b. c. 90, the year in which the Marsic war broke out, Curio was tribune of the people. He afterwards served in the army of Sulla during his war in Greece against Archelaus, the general of Mithridates, and when the city of Athens was taken, Curio besieged the tyrant Aristion in the acropolis. In b. c. 82 he was in­vested with the praetorship, and in 76 he was made consul together with Cn. Octavius. After the expiration of the consulship, he obtained Ma­cedonia as his province, and carried on a war for three years in the north of his province against

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